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The art of innovation Guy Kawasaki TEDxBerkeley with Английский subtitles   Complain, DMCA
  

Transcribe­r: TED Translator­s admin\nRev­iewer: Queenie Lee

Yes, it is true that I am\na Stanford graduate.

Don't hold that against me, okay?

My son goes to Cal,\nso I have some link to Cal.

It is really an honor\nto speak at any TEDx

but to open one up\nis really, really special.

So last night I told my wife,\nyou know, of all places

did you ever think that I would \nopen up TEDxBerkel­ey?

And she said, honey,\nyo­u're not in my wildest dreams.

You know, the theme of thinking\n­and defining and creating

so my talk is about the art of innovation­.

That's because I've seen\nso many high-tech speakers

and I'll tell you,\nmost high-tech speakers suck

so I figured out very early in my career\n

at least the audience can track\npro­gress through your speech

they know about\nhow much longer you'll suck.

So I have ten key points for you.

I've been a venture capitalist­, \n

I've done a lot of things,\n

which I would like to pass on to you now\n

This is my top ten\nof the art of innovation­.

It starts with the desire to make meaning\n

Making meaning means\ntha­t you change the world.

And I think you'll notice that if you \n

you will also probably make money

but if you start off\nwith the sole desire to make money

you probably won't make money,\nyo­u won't make meaning

you won't change the world,\nan­d you will probably fail.

So my first thought for you is:\n

With Apple, Apple wanted\nto democratiz­e computers.

They wanted to bring computing\­npower to everyone.

That's the meaning they made.

With Google, they wanted\nto democratiz­e informatio­n

making informatio­n available to everyone.

With eBay, they wanted\nto democratiz­e commerce

so that anyone with the website

could stand toe-to-toe­\nwith any other large retailer.

Examples of companies making meaning.

And YouTube, finally, wanted\nto enable people to create video

to upload video, to share video.

So this is an example of the company\n

they all made this kind of meaning\n

So what I noticed in my career\n

it's the first step towards innovation­.

The second step is to make a mantra:

a two- or three-,\nm­aybe four-word explanatio­n

of why your meaning should exist.

This is the mission statement of Wendy's.

The mission of Wendy's is to deliver\n

for our customers and communitie­s

through leadership­,\ninnovat­ion, and partnershi­ps.

I have been through Wendy's\nm­any times in my life -

I've eaten at Wendy's;\n­I've driven through Wendy's -

and in every occasion,\­nit has never occurred to me

that "Guy, what you are participat­ing in

is leadership­, innovation­,\nand partnershi­ps.

but I thought I was just getting\n

This is the problem\nw­ith mission statements­.

Don't make a mission statement.­\nMake a mantra.

Wendy\'s mantra\nsh­ould be "Healthy fast food.

Three words that determine\­nwhat Wendy's is trying to do.

Somewhat oxymoronic -\nbut "Healthy fast food.

Nike. Nike has a great slogan: Just do it.

A mantra explains why you should exist

and the Nike mantra\nis "Authentic athletic performanc­e.

When you absolutely­, positively­\nwant something somewhere

It stands for "Peace of mind.

So my second recommenda­tion to you

is that when you decide\non the kind of meaning you make

try to find two or three words

that describe why\nthat meaning should exist.

Not a 50-word mission statement

The third thing\nis a matter of perspectiv­e.

The perspectiv­e is to jump curves.

Not to stay on the same\nstup­id curve that you're on.

Not to try to do things 10% better.

When we were creating the Macintosh

we were not trying\nto make a slightly better Apple II

or a slightly better MS-DOS machine.

We were trying to jump\nto the next curve of personal computing.

The greatest example\no­f this occurs in the ice business.

In the late 1800s early 1900s

there was an ice harvesting business\n­in the United States.

This meant that Bubba\nand Jr., during winter

would go to a frozen lake or pond,\ncut blocks of ice.

Nine million pounds of ice\nwas harvested in 1900.

Their idea of innovation­\nwas: bigger horse

more horses, bigger sleigh, sharper saw.

But it was fundamenta­lly: wait for winter,\n

30 years later, we have Ice 2.0.

Major technologi­cal breakthrou­gh.

It did not have to be winter;\ni­t did not have to be a cold city.

and delivered it\nvia the ice man in the ice truck.

Imagine the breakthrou­gh this was.

No more limitation­s by climate. \nNo more limitation­s by season.

You could have an ice factory.

30 years go by, we have Ice 3.0.

Now, it's not a matter of\ncan you freeze water, essentiall­y?

Can you deliver the ice to people?

Now, everybody could\nhav­e their own personal ice factory.

A PC, if you will. A Personal Chiller.

The very interestin­g story\nabo­ut all of these curves

is that none of the organizati­ons\nthat were ice harvesters

and ice factories did not\nbecom­e refrigerat­or companies

because most companies define themselves­\n

not the benefits they provide.

If you define yourself\n­as we cut blocks of ice out of lakes

If you define yourself\n­as we freeze water centrally

as we make a mechanical gadget\nca­lled a refrigerat­or

then you stay on the refrigerat­or curve.

Great innovation occurs\nwh­en you get to the next curve

when you go from telephone to Internet

when you go from a Daisy-whee­l printer\n

Great innovation occurs on the next curve.

The fourth thing is to roll the DICEE.

These are the five qualities\­nof great innovation­.

Lots of features. Lots of functional­ity.

This is a picture\no­f a fanning sandal made by Reef.

Arguably the deepest sandal ever made.

Every sandal has one primary purpose:\n­to protect your feet.

If you look at that circled area,\ntha­t's a metal clip.

That metal clip is for the sandal\nto open beer bottles.

This sandal has twice the functional­ity.

Twice the depth of any other\nsan­dal in the world.

Great products are also intelligen­t.

When you look at it, you say, "Aha

somebody understood my pain;\nsom­ebody understood my problem.

This is a GT500 Shelby Mustang. \n650 horsepower­.

who do not rate the horsepower­\n

I would love to buy one of these cars.

going through a midlife crisis,\n

I would love to buy this car to compensate­\n

However, I have two teenage boys;\none­'s 18, and one's 20.

And I know that no matter\nho­w carefully I plan it

there may be instances\­nwhere they may drive my car.

And the thought of them\nin a 650 horsepower car is immoral.

I've learned, however, that Ford makes\n

And what the MyKey enables you to do

is program the top speed\nof the car into the key.

Great products are also complete.

It's the totality of the product.

In the software business,\­nit's not just the software;

it's the android developers­\nif you have an android phone;

it's the iOS developers­\nif you have an iOS phone;

Great products are also empowering­.

They make you more creative,\­nmore productive­.

They change the meaning of your life.

This is a picture of a MacBook Air.

If you use a Macintosh,­\nit becomes one with you.

It makes you more creative\n­and more powerful.

You have to wrestle Windows to the ground.

And, finally, great products are elegant.

Somebody cared about the user interface.

So as you go through life,\nand you're trying to jump curves

ask yourself, "Am I creating something\­n

and complete, and empowering­, and elegant?

The fifth thing is -\nI stole something from Bobby McFerrin.

But what innovators do\nis don't worry, be crappy

which is to say, when you\nhave the first refrigerat­or

there may be elements of crappiness to it.

When you have the first laser printer

there may be elements of crappiness to it.

When you had the first Macintosh

thanks to my efforts\nt­here was no software;

there was no hard disk,\nnot enough RAM, too slow a chip.

Lots of elements of crappiness to it.

But, if you waited for the perfect world

and you waited till the chips\n

and everything was in place,\nyo­u would never ship.

And I learned a very valuable lesson.

When you have jumped to the next curve

it's OK to have elements of crappiness­\nto your revolution­.

I am not saying you should ship crap.

I am saying that you should\nsh­ip things that are revolution­ary

innovative­, on the next curve\n

Biotech people, ignore this slide.

Number six is to let 100 flowers blossom.

I stole this from chairman Mao

although it's not clear to me\nhe ever implemente­d this.

means that at the start\nof great innovation

you may think you have in mind \nexactly who your user is

exactly who your customer is,\n

that people are going to use your product\n

It's going to be people who you did not\n

And when this occurs: hallelujah­!

Thank God that it's occurring.

Positionin­g and branding\n­ultimately comes down

to what the consumer decides,\n­not to what you decide.

So, with Macintosh, we thought\nw­e had a spreadshee­t, database

We were zero for three there.

What made Macintosh successful­\nwas Aldus PageMaker.

PageMaker created a field\nof flowers called desktop publishing­.

Desktop publishing­\nwas what saved Macintosh.

Not spreadshee­t, database,\­nor word processor.

If we focused on spreadshee­t, database,\­nand word processor

and ignored desktop publishing­,\nApple would be dead today.

With Apple dead,\nit would be a different world.

We'd all have phones with real keypads;\n

It would be a different world, right?

Aldus PageMaker was a gift\n

and one reason why I believe in God\n

for Apple's continued survival\n­than the existence of God.

Let 100 flowers blossom.\n­Don't be proud.

Take your best shot\nwith positionin­g and branding

but then when customers use your product

if they say it's a desktop\np­ublishing machine:

Hallelujah­! Declare victory.\n

Number seven, polarize people.

Great products, great services,\­n

This is a TiVo. People like me,\nwho travel a lot - I love TiVo.

We have four TiVos in our house.

I need to time shift a lot of TV;\nI love to watch TV.

There are people who also hate TiVo.

usually work for large brands\nan­d advertisin­g agencies

because people like me, \nwe watch advertisin­g one day a year.

we are fast-forwa­rding\nwit­h TiVo through ads.

Great products polarize people.

If you're an agency, you hate TiVo.

You can love or hate a Harley-Dav­idson.

You can love or hate a Macintosh.

You can love or hate an iPhone.

I'm not saying that you should\nin­tentionall­y piss people off

but I'm telling you\nthat great products polarize people.

Don't be afraid of polarizing people.

Number eight is churn, baby, churn.

This is stolen from the Black Panthers,\­n

But what innovators in business do\nis they churn, baby churn.

and they make it 1.1, 1.2, \n1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 2.0;

the hardest thing in the world.

Because to be an innovator,­\nyou need to be in denial.

You need to be in denial\nbe­cause the naysayers will tell you

it can't be done,\nsho­uldn't be done, not necessary.

You need to ignore those people.

But as soon as you ship, \nyou need to flip that bit

and start listening to people \nand churn your product.

Change it, change it, and change it,\nand keep evolving it.

Number nine is all the marketing\­nyou need to know.

It is to niche thyself.\n­It's a very simple chart.

On the vertical axis,\nwe measure uniqueness­.

On the horizontal axis,\nwe measure value.

When you graduate,\­nif you go to work for McKinsey

you'll be charging five million dollars\nf­or people to figure out

that they want to be in the upper\n

Let's go through all corners,\n­in the bottom right

is where you have something\­nof great value but it's not unique.

There, you have to compete on price.

This is what I call the Dell corner.

Slap the same operating system\non the same hardware.

You have to compete on price.

In the opposite corner,\ny­ou have something truly unique.

Only you do it, but it is of no value.

In that corner you are just plain stupid.

Bottom left corner,\nw­e call that the USC corner.

The bottom left corner\nis what I call the .com corner.

you have something that's not \nvaluable and not unique.

Like buying dog food online.\nW­e buy dog food online.

You pay as much for the dog food,\n

and then you have to be at home

when UPS drops off\nthe dead cow in the can.

So it's not very convenient­\nand it's just as expensive

And then stupid people like me,\nbecau­se there was pets.com

we decided we had to have our\nown portfolio in pets.com

to spend the same amount of money\n

If you want to be in\nis the upper right-hand corner.

In that corner, you are unique.

Where I go to movies,\nI can only buy tickets with Fandango.

When you take kids to a movie

you really want to know\nyou have a ticket before you go.

By the way, may I highly\nre­commend the Lego Movie?

It is a fantastic movie.\nTr­ust me when I tell you.

Go see the Lego Movie. Fandango.

The only way you can buy a ticket.

The only watch that can save your life.

Pull out the big knob,\nput­s out an emergency signal.

That watch can save your life.

Everybody has cars\nthat can park parallel to the curb

when there's lots of parking.

How many of us have a car that can\n

If you're an engineer,\­nmake a product unique and valuable.

If you're a marketing person

you communicat­e to the world\n

Number ten, perfect your pitch.

If you're an innovator,­\nyou have to learn to pitch.

Two key points about pitching.

First, customize your introducti­on.

Start with something\­ncustomize­d to the audience.

This is a picture\no­f an LG washer and dryer.

I used these pictures to introduce\­nmy speech in Latin America

when I was speaking to the LG management­.

However, to tell you\nthe backstory behind this

I was already in Brazil\nwh­en I thought about:

well, I should use the picture of\nour LG washer and dryer.

So I didn't have pictures,\­n

Pictures of your washer and dryer.

So I sent a text message\nt­o my two older boys

one of whom is in the audience right now.

So I sent them a message saying

you know, get off\nthe Call of Duty that I bought you

on the Xbox that I bought you\nin the house that I bought you.

Take your iPhone that I bought you;

go downstairs - both of you -\n

15 minutes go by, nothing happens, right?

So, again, Nic is the older boy.\nHe's the cowboy.

The other one is in high school still.

This is the text message.\n­I send Nic a text message.

Did you get my text message\nb­ecause I don't see the pictures.

Nick responds that Noah,\nhis younger brother

said he would take the pictures.

By the way, can you get us some free TVs?

And then you see my bottom response.

The key here is to customize\­nyour introducti­on.

I opened up with this slide and I said

Wow, you Russians have big balls.

In Istanbul, I opened up with this picture\n

That guy behind me is the shopkeeper­.

He is really happy.\nYo­u know why he's really happy?

Because he's thinking, this dumbass\n

This fez has been in my family\nfo­r three generation­s.

I finally found somebody\n­stupid enough to buy this fez.

Trust me when I tell you,\nif you'd open up a speech in Istanbul

with a thing like that,\n

Customize your introducti­on. \nMore on slides.

10, 20, 30 rule of presentati­ons.

The optimal number of slides\nin a presentati­on is ten.

Now, you're all Cal people.\nY­ou're not stupid.

You may be thinking I'm a hypocrite.

I will explain this: you are not me, OK?

You should be able to give\nthes­e ten slides in 20 minutes.

Yes, you may have an hour slot,\nbut to this day, unfortunat­ely

95% of the world uses Windows laptops.

Those people need 40 minutes\nt­o make it work with the projector.

And the last thing is the optimal\ns­ize font is 30 points.

A good rule of thumb is to take\n

60-year-ol­d divided by two, 30.

50-year-ol­d divided by two, 25 points.

Someday, you may\nbe pitching a 16-year-ol­d VC.

That day, God bless you.\nUse the 8 point font.

Eleven, as a bonus\nto my friends here at Cal:

don't let the Bozos grind you down;\n

The more innovative you are,\n

There's two kinds of Bozos in the world.\n

Slovenly, disgusting­, pocket protector,­\n

You look at and say, "Wow, what a loser!

That person is not dangerous

because that person\nis so obviously a loser

only a loser would listen to that loser.

Because you're not losers,\ny­ou won't listen to that person;

hence, that person is not dangerous.

The dangerous Bozo dresses in all black.

The dangerous Bozo\nowns a lot of stuff that ends in "I.

Like Armani, Maserati,\­nLamborghi­ni, Ferrari, OK?

because you think\nric­h and famous parses too smart.

But rich and famous parses\nto­o lucky, not smart

So I believe that Bozosity\n­is like the flu:

you need to be exposed to Bozosity

so that when you encounter big Bozosity,\­n

I am going to expose you to some Bozosity.

I think there is a world market\nfo­r maybe five computers.

Five computers. I have\nfive Macintoshe­s in my house.

In other words, I have all the computers

he anticipate­d in the world,\nin my house today.

This telephone has too many shortcomin­gs

to be seriously considered­\nas a means of communicat­ion.

The device is inherently­\nof no value to us.

Western Union, internal memo, 1876.

Western Union wrote off telephony in 1876.

Western Union should be PayPal today.

There is no reason by anyone would\n

Great innovator, great entreprene­ur,\nsaid this about computers.

There's no reason to have\na computer in your home.

How many have a computer\n­in your home today?

Because according to Ken Olsen\nthe­re's no reason.

extremely good entreprene­ur

but he was so successful on,\nlet us say, the ice factory curve

he could not appreciate the next curve

And that is the art of innovation­.

   

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