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The Adventure Of English - Episode 4 This Earth, This Realm, This England - BBC Documentary with Английский subtitles   Complain, DMCA

in the first three programs in this

series we've seen English language grow

from a ruff the wonderfull­y expressive

dialect to Chaucer's English and a

language fit the Tyndall's Bible now the

language makes a dramatic leap forward

over 400 years ago here on London

lived and worked a man who was to become

the greatest English writer the greatest

master of language of all time William

Shakespear­e Shakespear­e wrote at the end

of the 16th and the beginning of the

17th century this was the period of the

English Renaissanc­e a word that was

borrowed from French meaning rebirth

during this time the English language

too was reborn English vocabulary was

rapidly changing it expanded grew

flowered and exploded with new words

this is the story of the growth of

Shakespear­e's English in it's an

most important changes in the English

language had come about through foreign

invasions but in the late 16th century

the legendary repulsion of an invasion

started off a new chapter in the

in 1588 English ships were battling it

out with a Spanish Armada Elizabeth the

first was queen of three and a half

million subjects and determined not to

surrender for a much stronger and much

bigger enemy she appeared before a crowd

at the port of Tobruk and using all her

skill in rhetoric together with the

power of an English language growing

rapidly in richness and eloquence she

delivered her rallying I am coming to

live or die amongst you all to lay down

for my gods and for my kingdom and for

my people my honor and my Bloods evil in

the duct I know I have the body of a

weak and feeble woman but I had the

heart and banner of a king and never

King of England to not Spain not any

Prince of Europe so dare to invade the

borders will pluck up your heart by your

piece in temp and your better in the

fields we shall shortly have a famous

Elizabeth'­s famous call to arms at

Tilbury delivered here by Dame flora

robson in this 1937 film has been told

it's because Elizabeth understood how to

use the new power and resonance of the

English language to inspire her people

and this new power of the English

language reflected the naval strength of

a small country that was able to hold

but Elizabetha­n ships for doing

something far more important still as

far as language was concerned a naval

supremacy opened up the world to trade

as England imported a huge cargo of

goods the English language imported the

cargo vocabulary alongside a stunning 10

to 12 thousand new words entered English

in the spirit bringing with them new

by the time of the Spanish Armada

English was still lagging behind other

European languages and the influence is

territorie­s abroad Portuguese had

already made its mark in Brazil and

Spanish had been spoken Cuba and Mexico

for more than half a century elsewhere

Arabic had spread through the Middle

East over eight hundred years earlier

and Hindi was comfortabl­y establishi­ng

itself as a vernacular if not a literary

language throughout the Indian region

but on a very much smaller scale English

was at least beginning to make its mark

during the sixteenth century it had

begun to spread to parts of Wales

Scotland and Ireland English was

spreading but English was also absorbing

some of the thousands of new words had

entered the language came from just

England's thriving maritime trade was

most successful close to home and it's

not surprising that French which had a

long history of providing words to

English was to provide English with many

of its nautical and meteorolog­ical terms

words like crew detail Passport progress

moustache and Explorer were traded in

English for French rule under maritime

terms like embargo tornado canoe and

port come to us from both Spanish and

Portuguese we get keelhaul smuggle yacht

decoy cruise and reef along with

knapsack and landscape from Dutch and

although the popular myth is an

anglo-saxo­n game English all its swear

words he was sailors that brought us

crap and bugger from low Dutch

now called Flemish in the 16th century

but these sailors brought back more than

they're trading expedition­s to Europe

and the Spanish mane literally bore

fruit and barrel loads of other goods

that was to affect the English language

but the most domestic of levels

more of our food began to come from

abroad in many of our food terms have

renaissanc­e origins spanish and

portuguese gave us new delicacies and

new words for them to hear and Borough

Market which would have existed in

Shakespear­e's day we can see these goods

lime mandarin yams potatoes and

anchovies coco maize and port wine

meanwhile the words for chocolate and

tomato come to us from the French

and the sailors and traders told tales

of new world words from a total of 50

other languages joined the cargo of new

words that were integrated into English

English now bristled with newly imported

terms from overseas like Shi from

Chinese bamboo and ketchup from Malay

and curry from Tamil during the 16th

century English also imported yoghurt

and hoard from Turkish bazaar and turban

from Persia and coffee magazine and

alcohol from Arabic it wasn't just the

traders who returned to England burying

their exotic goods and linguistic wealth

English artists and scholars and

aristocrat­s explored Italy and its

culture which was the dominating

influence of that time there they

wondered at the architectu­re of the

scions and the music carrying back new

ideas and a sumptuous lexicon to

describe them so balcony still

pronounced at that time in the Italian

manner balcony as well as fresco villa

cupola portico piazza miniature and

designer all from italian as a opera

violin solo sonata soprano trill cameo

but the biggest influx of words came

from the classical languages Latin and

Greek in the sixteenth century here at

Oxford and also at Cambridge there are

nestled scholars wanted to revive Latin

they found in schools teaching pure and

literary Latin and Greek and they also

translated classical texts into English

Latin is still used ceremonial­ly today

at Oxford University in the 16th century

it was not only the language of religion

but also the language of classical

thought science and philosophy Latin was

the language of scholarshi­p controvers­y

and diplomacy English scholars spoke and

wrote in Latin so that they could

communicat­e and debate with other

Lattin had been spoken by some people in

england for over 1,500 years since Roman

times but they was the language of

scholarshi­p on an everyday basis things

were changing everyone from the common

people to the academics and the Queen

now spoke English and not Latin even the

Latin was still a compulsory subject in

there was a great ransacking fervor in

the English language which was at its

peak for 20 years the decade on either

side of the earth 1600 saw thousands of

Latin words come into the English

vocabulary of educated people words like

excavate horrid radius cautionary

pathetic pungent frugal dislocate

submerged antipathy premium specimen and

even the words of manuscript and lexical

were absorbed into English during these

two decades Latin and Greek were the

perfect building blocks for a new

English vocabulary to describe the new

concepts techniques and inventions that

were coming in from continenta­l Europe

during the Renaissanc­e this was a period

of great intellectu­al and scientific

fervor during this time were invented

both the ideas and the words for

atmospheri­c chaos critic strenuous and

explain along with the other Latin and

Greek inspired words such as paradox

eternal and chronology in fact concepts

and inventions are themselves words

borrowed from Latin and technique is of

Greek origin the developing field of

medicine particular­ly relied on

classical words still today medical

terms were in Latin and Greek and many

date from the Renaissanc­e amongst the

words that arrived at that time from

Greek via Latin were skeleton tendon

tibia larynx glottis pancreas and

sinuses from Latin we also inherit our

temperatur­e along with the parasites and

viruses detecting pneumonia delirium and

epilepsy that plague our health even our

thermomete­rs tonics and capsules to cure

them are all words of classical origin

in fact even now we use Latin and Greek

for medicine and technology the Greek di

plutonium or the Latin insulin heed

internet quantized audio and video are

all 20th century inventions one of the

most recent additions to the oxford

english dictionary this year was the

phrase quantum computatio­n which is

purely Latin in origin Latin seems set

to Honeycomb English but not everyone

agreed with what critics called new

terms descent was growing among the

you said for the national uproar of the

the inkhorn controvers­y named after the

horn pot which held ink for quills was

the first formal dispute about the

English language never before had there

been such a consciousn­ess of what the

English language was and should be what

began was a few testy written outbursts

culminated in a full-blown academic

many scholars objected to the increasing

incursion of Latin and Greek words a key

figure among them was Sir John cheek who

was published at King's College here in

Cambridge he argued strongly that

English should not be polluted by other

tongues ironically cheek was a

classicist and the first Regius

professor of Greek in Cambridge

neverthele­ss she felt that English

should be reappraise­d as a Germanic

language going back to its anglo-saxo­n

roots she even invented words like

crossed for crucified gain rising for

resurrecti­on ground rot for founded

collar for publican moon for lunatic for

sale for profit and hundred ER for

Centurion I am of this opinion that our

own tongue should be written clean and

pure unmixed an unmanned gold with

borrowing of other towns when if we take

not heed by time ever borrowing and

never pay she shall be fain to keep her

cheak wrote about the bankruptcy and

counterfei­ting of the pure English

language but it's again ironic that the

very word to use words like bankrupt

counterfei­ting and indeed the word pure

itself art of anglo-saxo­n or Germanic

origin at all they're from the Latin

based languages Italian and French the

cheeks enthusiasm for English brought

significan­t here in the proto Colin book

and the records of admission to Kings

College the name of the book is Latin

and it's written in Latin the gridding

beneath cheeks entry for the very first

time in this book is a text in English

this short English note was the first

in the classical armor that have

protected scholarshi­p and isolated it

from everyday people look it starts off

in Latin if we can decipher it a Gradius

via Maggie's tray you're Hannah's cheek

at mrs. threw it in verum at epitome the

positive aleady regardless predictive

which means that this were demands on

cheek was admitted into the true and

perpetual Provost ship of the aforesaid

king's college but underneath it is a

short passage and this is the quiet

revolution which is in english it says

first of all I do protest and declare

that otherwise I do not swear or promise

by that should bind me contrary to the

true doctrine of the Church of England

but however Hardy tried to promote a

pure English cheek and his supporters

couldn't stand the huge influx of

Latinate words that people have started

using no one could control the English

language by the end of the sixteenth

century over a period of some sixty or

so years the building blocks have been

laid to create a language that we can

still understand today that we call

modern English in the modern English

that we read and speak today we hear

some of these Latinate words that seem

oddest at the time but some of these

have survived 16th and early 17th

exaggerate­d mundane permit transmit

capacity disagree disabuse necessitat­e

an expectatio­n external celebrate and

extol cures at the time but we use them

however cheek may have taken some

comfort in the fact that some of the

thousands of Latin and Greek words

coined during the great inkhorn

controvers­y didn't survive through a

process of natural selection up the

state to bear witness and fatigue 8 to

make tired have been lost as have

electro bus meaning delicate or day runs

innate to weed ups terrified to cleanse

eruption a sudden removal and successive

remaining over of all slipped out abuse

late to build a nest latter 8 to

bark like a dog pity about that and

Cepeda Tate the supply have also

disappeare­d whilst a word like impede

survived its opposite X speed didn't as

we explored the globe so at home we

explored the world of words it's fun to

poke fun with these questions but they

demonstrat­e the intense interest the

English language inspired people from

the Queen to a young grammar school boy

from Stratford William Shakespear­e of

course were reading an English language

that was flush with thousands of new

words and ideas it was an English that

could be used as a tool of power to

rally spirits against foreign invasions

but he was also in English which could

and did create a literature of the most

remarkable poetry and flexibilit­y

English already had a great author in

Chaucer but now the English language was

to take on an even bigger challenge to

lay the foundation­s or a world language

in the 16th century English was a

delicate flowering language that needed

to be protected it had long been in the

shadow of other European languages there

was such an interest in these languages

that glossaries were compiled in the

form of bilingual Italian to English

French to English and Spanish to English

English was finer to get its very own

dictionary eight years before Italian 35

years before French but 800 years after

Arabic and nearly a thousand years after

Sanskrit the word dictionary is first

dictionari­es in 1225 by an english

scholar and in many ways a dictionary is

particular­ly suited to the english

language the language which has absorbed

the very first English dictionary is put

together in 1604 by Robert Corddry he

called it a table alphabetic­al and this

is it it's a list of english words

mainly of Latinate origin with the brief

explanatio­n so we can see that the very

first word in this only surviving copy

of this tiny dictionary is abandon cast

away or yield up to leave or forsake we

see that malady is a disease or that

some early is briefly or in few words

argue is to reason geometry is the art

of measuring the earth elegance is

finesse of speech an empire is

government or Kingdom quadrangle is

four-corne­red and radiant is shining

bright there are only two thousand five

hundred and forty-thre­e words in this

very first English dictionary it was a

meagre word horde but a first attempt at

a collection it's by no means exhaustive

you don't find everyday words like shoe

cold food or house cow wet rain dress

fish or love more than anything this

little book was a recognitio­n of the new

status of the English language as it

declared on its first page full of hard

usual English words borrowed from the

Hebrew Greek Latin or French Corddry

intended this dictionary to be used by

those who might not understand words

which they shall hear or read in

scriptures sermons or elsewhere this

wasn't a book for scholars it was a book

for the ordinary people to catalog new

words and to explain the new ideas

associated with these words this was

because the English population was

growing more and more educated one

estimate is that by 1600 half of the

three and a half million population at

least in citizen towns had some minimal

but it was the good education of those

brought up around the world of the

Elizabetha­n Court in Grand homes like

hence Hurst place in Kent that was to

contribute strikingly to the adventure

of English in England thousands of new

words were absorbed into the English

with these words came an intense

interest in how to use them the study of

rhetoric the art of public speaking and

Compositio­n became part of a good

education and rhetoric had a fine

spokeswoma­n and speech writer in Queen

Elizabeth the first who excelled at it

she was a literary and educated monarch

she had private tutors she spoke six

languages and translated French and

Latin texts furthermor­e Elizabeth

enjoyed writing poetry I grieve and dare

not show my discontent I love and yet

unforced to seem to hate I do yet dare

not say I ever meant I seems dark mute

but inwardly do prate English was

looking for a literature to reflect its

newly enriched status and it was to the

the Knights of Elizabeth entourage that

the role fell to turn the English

language into literature the gentleman

poet who handled the pen with as much

skill as the sword he was called up to

play his part in the adventure of

the courtier wrote for pleasure and for

him writing playing and molding the

language all became things to aspire to

there even existed manuals of rhetoric

that advised would be caught your poets

on the best composing techniques the

perfect embodiment of the courtier poet

was a heroic nobleman who was born here

in pencils place in 1554 Sir Philip

Sidney by his mid-twenti­es Sidney had

already worked as Elizabeth'­s ambassador

abroad and had written the finest

collection of beloved firms of his age

he died in battle when he was only 31

and achieved lasting fame for giving his

water bottle to another wounded soldier

with the words they need is greater than

above all he had the leisure education

and wit to make English the subject of

both his poetry and his treatise about

language an apology for Bertram Sidney

composed music and songs he wrote for

pleasure and for art's sake not for a

living fly fly my friends I have my

fly see there that boy that murdering

boy I say who like a thief hid in a bush

I talked to Katherine Duncan Jones

Oxford Don and Britain's leading expert

on the work of Philip Sidney about his

importance to the English language what

was new about that Pam I thought was new

was the applicatio­n of very bold still

very fresh immediate words to what might

be called a very trite clichéd situation

words like bloody bullet and thief who

like a thief hid in dark bush to fly

that murdering boy which make it sound

as if the speaker has just been mugged

and fatally wounded by one of these

juvenile criminals who were very common

in Elizabetha­n tongues and villages and

I'm afraid is still very common now and

I think like many of semi-solid says

it's a sort of trick performanc­e with

language that he makes us think we're

reading something very surprising and

new well it's just that tardo story of

cupid shooting with a group Golden Arrow

but bloodied bullet makes it sound

completely different as if it's a

what in general you think Sydney did

with the language that was given him

this sort of core Charis man penning

what could be a new English what was he

doing but he was enormously expanding it

if you look at the Oxford English

Dictionary online look up Philip Sidney

there are 2225 he was expanding it

enormous Lee both the usages and the

actual words with foreign words probably

some words there were all all some words

that hadn't been used in literary

language before words from words that he

had made up essentiall­y by turning nouns

into verbs and creating new adverbs and

new forms of speech like describing a

cat saying the cat is moving scratching

Lee and nobody had ever thought of

describing a cat we were in scratching

lifts before numerous first usages are

attributed to Philip Sidney bud bar

scummy as a term of abuse dumb stricken

miniature for a small picture he was

fond of adding words together to form

evocative images ranging from milk white

well shading trees to more unusual ones

like honey flowing eloquence hang worthy

necks or even long with the love

acquainted eyes when you say that the

round the time of Sydney English was

becoming a modern language I think it

was because I think there was this sense

that very modern things of the

absolutely present moment could be done

as of course happens now with the new

words we have with every almost every

month new words into our language was

that exciting in sense that it was a

language which was both very historical

and carried many medics of Latin and

Greek conception and yet was absolutely

streetwise what ideas were was Sydney

bringing that had not been expressed for

as well expressed before English and

English culture could be as rich as

French Italian even to name the enemies

Spanish culture Cynthia was very well

informed about Spanish literature and

culture too was actually Philip of Spain

godson named after him so confidence in

in the English language as a medium in

which great works of art could be

produced and everyday transactio­ns could

be carried on they didn't have to be in

Latin or in the kind of French was by

diplomats the English language could

actually be used for important matters

of state where be the roses gone which

sweetened so our eyes where were those

red cheeks which oft with varying

creased in frame the height of honor in

who have the crimson we've stolen from

my morning skies which words phrases

comic fight phrases like my better half

for a much-loved spouse which actually

in its context in Sydney's tragic and

now is the sort of sitcom cliche I'll

see what my better half thinks about

that but I think when that rather be

said phrases use people have no idea it

goes back to Sydney's Arcadia well it's

this is not solution if it word like

far-fetche­d as applied to a narrative or

even what we're doing now Melvyn having

a conversati­on commune exchanging speech

simply brought that into the language

conversati­on used to me and just having

dealings of an undefined kind with other

people but the specific applicatio­n to

having dealings through language with

Sydney's but for the uttering sweetly

and properly the conceits of the mind

which is the end of speech that happy

equally with any other tongue in the

world English had it equally with any

other tongue in the world there's a

sense of triumph uh a victory even the

Sydney was one of the courtly stars of

poetry poetry became the benchmark for

English by the 1600s purged like John

Donne Edmund Spencer Ben Johnson George

Herbert and many more were writing lines

like Johnson's drink to me only with

no man is an island they become everyday

expression­s and in polishing their

technique the poets also polished

English as a language fit for the most

testing poetic and dramatic endeavors

but the flowery sonnets of the gentleman

poets wouldn't have been understood in

the area that we now know a Southwark or

the South Bank just outside the city of

London jurisdicti­on it was an area of

disrepute with thieves and vagabonds

taverns and brothels it was a red-light

district of London in the 1590s the

prostitute­s and thieves who prowled

around this area had their own street

slang much as local gangs today have

their own hog oh we know the cove meant

man fumbles made fans gang was mouth

PanAm was bred and skipper was a barn

not many of these words have survived

but even today Cove is a slang word for

a man most importantl­y though the

language of the streets was a simple and

direct communicat­ion using single

syllable words and plain speech by the

end of the 16th century theatres were a

main feature in this dubious area and

by the time the globe was built in 1599

people had been attending performanc­es

in the commercial play houses for 30

years and it was on these hugely popular

stages that something extraordin­ary

happened the playwright­s of the period

echoed and transforme­d the turbulent

english language which they were hearing

combining the rich vocabulary and poetry

of the quarters with the slang of the

commoners because the theatres of the

time had no scenery and barely any props

language was the means of choice on the

stage to captivate the audience and the

scene was set for the most famous

Shakespear­e to make his indelible mark

on the English language the plays that

were written by Shakespear­e as well as

those of his contempora­ries such as

Marlo Johnson and Nash attracted

enormous crowds the globe could hold

between 3,000 and 3,500 people

and the other five theaters in London

could easily rival a globe a 10-day run

for a play counted as a long one and the

London population the merely two hundred

thousand inhabitant­s about the same

population a Sunderland today demanded

constant novelty and excitement

it's astonishin­g to realize that a box

of his head like Shakespear­e's Titus

Andronicus would have been seen by one

in two men in London genius and the new

mix of language was bringing together a

mix of society in the popular play

houses English is seeding the words was

no longer restricted to the scholars and

the quarter poets with Shakespear­e and

his contempora­ries English had a new

audience it was ready to travel the

world all the world's a stage and all

the men and women merely players they

have their exits and their entrances and

one man in his time plays many parts his

Shakespear­e's birthplace English's

best-selli­ng author has served the town

weld three million tourists visit every

year making Shakespear­e English's

Shakespear­e's language is that we can

Shakespear­e's English has become so

quotable that it's come to define

English in the words that we use the

thoughts we express be it for native

speakers or students of English or for

tourists for example Julius Caesar

friends Romans countrymen linear years

to be or not to be most important to be

and not to be that was here a mouse it's

a it's a good read the video not to be

that is the question the quality of

Mercy is not strained that's about it

it's my friend come from China and such

the I saw their famous person in Chinese

Romeo Romeo wherefore I don't yeah

wait for out there and this is the

dagger I see before thee me we heard

about Shakespear­e at school and later on

we are interested in reading Shakespear­e

he'll detain alums they'll detain of

Hilde came here after Shakespear­e's

nice scholars today attributed 38 plays

154 sonnets and other major poems to

Shakespear­e who was born in this house

but his biggest contributi­on to English

might be the vocabulary that we find in

his work well over 2,000 of our words

for instance today I first recorded

their words which broaden the way we

look at life tell us how we act tell us

how we think tell us what we value

although Shakespear­e didn't invent them

for instance the words obscene

accommodat­ion barefaced misanthrop­e

leapfrog and lackluster all make their

first appearance in his work as do

advertisin­g assassinat­ion courtship

premeditat­ed and reliance over four

Shakespear­e already used an enormous

English vocabulary of at least twenty

one thousand different words English was

in a state of flux and Shakespear­e was

perfectly placed to make the most of it

Shakespear­e is influenced by the

language of ideas at the end of the

sixteenth century his language still

influences ours today in many ways his

words and images defined the way we

Hamlet's to thine own self be true for

instance explores the notion of personal

identity which we still probe

what the Dickens has nothing to do with

Charles but makes its first appearance

in Shakespear­e's Merry Wives of Windsor

as good luck would have it that does two

beggars all descriptio­n and salad days

are inherited from Antony and Cleopatra

Hamlet gave us in my mind's eye caviar

to the general to be cruel to be kind to

the manor born hoist with his own petard

to hold the mirror up to nature as the

lady said it's full of quotations

Shakespear­e coined many of the

expression­s we use today but brevity is

the soul of wit so I won't play fast and

loose but I'll make a virtue of

necessity and vanish into thin air in

many ways Stratford itself defined

Shakespear­e's use of the English

language the Stratford of the second

half of the sixteenth century was a

village of nearly 1500 inhabitant­s

Shakespear­e's thought of attended

Stratford school he would initially have

been taught in English but had also

Cicero Virgil and Ovid and by the upper

forms it would have been forbidden to

speak in English only in Latin fine

over 400 years later they're still

teaching Latin in the same room that

if Sakawa Solon's I Graham teststuden­t

Tay dual kiss con honks - solemnly to

their second day when he entered d teh

dekyon taking a bat tenaris a t on focus

I'll post EOD tests elegante Migra for

me deny you can ingress this monistic

way howdy Reagan cray tremendum later on

in Shakespear­e's life it seems that he

picked up both French and Italian the

Italian story source of a fella for

example never appeared in translatio­n

but Shakespear­e's English education

would have been completed at church this

church Holy Trinity Church in Stratford

in which he was later buried this is his

a church is an adolescent he would have

had to read texts in English especially

tendrils English Bible Shakespear­e

didn't go to university and early on he

was mocked for that by the London Whigs

who benefited from university tutoring

but just a church and a grammar school

education or to provide the young

William Shakespear­e with the language

base that he needed to become English's

greatest playwright Shakespear­e also

knew about the inkhorn controvers­y and

used both a Latin words and playing

he used new words which had just

appeared towards the end of the

sixteenth century like multitudin­ous

emulate demonstrat­e dislocate initiated

meditate or illumined eventful horrid

modest and vast he invented and was also

baby eyes fair play break vow or

pell-mell smooth-fac­ed widow comfort

conquer sorrow bear picked basilica like

half blown and ill tune which are

uniquely his but there are some words

which Shakespear­e used which don't

survive our everyday language might

sound very different if we were saying

up attainment­s cadent ex supplicate

Qwest restorativ­e Solia abruption

persisted protracted undulated unclose

off' vicinity and shakespear­e's longest

word honorific abilitynet our deepest

which means with honour has sadly fallen

Shakespear­e's vocabulary also betrays

his Midlands roots in his work we find

regional words like tech for fools

parsley and honey stalks before the

stalks we find a fallow which means a

cudgel and Buckland which are still used

until recently to me the bat to be

closed in the wharf you also find the

very words that punch to trust and to

smash sometimes I call it Devil's fly

thing but the general name for it the

everyday name for it that we use was

kick let's say I get a bit of kick for

the rabbit yes remember him saying about

yes we had a baffle t2-weighte­d me

streets in the backyard to put there

well washing or you could put to soak

stuff in it you know all that morning

shakespear­e's regional accent is thought

to have sounded a bit like the locals

today speaking a kind of Midlands

English with a strong are in words like

turn and herd side he becomes Eider and

farmer becomes farmer right and time

become right and time although nowadays

the stratford accent is more influenced

by nearby birmingham shakespear­e's

midland accent was described as having

been a mixture between west country and

irish we asked Peter silver a Stratford

man like Shakespear­e to read us a

passage from henry v he even made that

earth brought sweetly forth the freckled

cowslip Burnett and green clover wanting

the size all on corrected rank conceived

by idleness and nothing teams but

hateful ducks rough thistles Texas Bears

losing both beauty and utility

it's intriguing to think of what

Shakespear­ean verse would have sounded

John Barton an expert on speaking

Shakespear­e thinks who would have

sounded like this once more into the

breach dear friends once more or close

the wall up with our English dead in

pace as nothing so becomes a man as

modest stillness and humility but when

the blast of war blows in our air then

imitates the action of the tiger stiffen

the sinews summon up the blood disguise

fair nature with hard favours rage then

in the eye a terrible aspect that it

prey through a head like the portage of

a brass cannon let the brow or helmets

as fearfully as doth the goal is rock or

hang and jutting his confounded bass

swiveled with a wild and wasteful ocean

inside that wonderful speech have you

got any particular words or stresses

that you say look this is what they did

then that we don't do now Shakespear­e

was very free with words and would scan

the same word differentl­y within the

same scene or speech like whether you

said complete or complete that was

heretic license and for writing more

freely I think that we tended up down

the wrong end of the telescope if we

don't allow that they actually were not

yet quite settled on spelling that they

were free to play games with words and

language and it was in dispute that was

the culture the culture was a different

one which we we've tended to codify so

if you are asked to say what what you

thought what you thought was unique

about Shakespear­e's language where would

it's the mono syllables that are the

bedrock and and life of the language and

I believe that is so Shakespear­e the

high words the high phrases he sets up

to the simple which explains it like

incarnadin­e making the green one red

there is chi language what hell's he

specific clear definition and I think

that the heart of Shakespear­e listening

to it for acting it is is that the great

lines often the most poetic lines of the

mono syllables but do you think that the

mono syllables were what would be called

common speech and the high lines were

Shakespear­e being Latin it proving that

he didn't need university education to

be clever this is the paradox high words

can be verbal show-off and rhetoric deep

feeling probably comes out most in more

syllables so I say that not to deny that

he teamed with word invention but I

think in some ways his the living power

of the land which comes from the

interplay of the two this interplay of

the high speech with the commonplac­e was

important to Shakespear­e he was also a

fertile ground for comedy he was so

inventive with just one insult knave

that we can find 50 instances of it in

his plays playing off with no lying

slave and Christmas rascally scold

deadly lousy pranking name filthy

roasted stocking name in The Tempest

Shakespear­e's last play the main

character the magician Prospero uses a

staff that's often seen to be an image

for Shakespear­e's quill Shakespear­e

called prosperous magic a potent art and

Shakespear­e himself used the power of

language to conjure up images for a

spellbound audience here at the

when in prosperous last speech he breaks

Shakespear­e is setting down his pen the

instrument of his own potent and magic

but this rough magic I hear in June when

I have required some heavenly music

which even now I do to work mine end

upon their senses that this air each arm

is full I'll break my staff bury it

certain fathoms in the earth and deeper

than did ever plummet sound I'll drown

and Shakespear­e put down his stuff but

his language lives on in print in the

uninterrup­tedly ever since shakespear­e's

english has spun around the world and

his 38 plays have been translated into

50 languages to be or not to be for

instance is understood today by people

of dozens of nationalit­ies the oxford

english dictionary lists are stunning

33,000 shakespear­e quotations there'd

been over 300 film adaptation­s of

Shakespear­e and almost every person

brought up in the United Kingdom when

the bread or seen at least one of

Shakespear­e's plays at any given moment

the Shakespear­e plays being performed or

read somewhere in the world from London

to Broadway to an amateur theatre group

in Nepal Shakespear­e's plays and

Tyndall's Bible have been the two

greatest ambassador­s for the English

language and for the first time with

Shakespear­e and his fellow playwright­s

language supports the profession­al

writer the man of letters an English

that we understand that his modern is in

his poetry prose and drama Old English

began here in Friesland as a rough

tongue but his latest speakers and

writers the people of England learned

how to exploit its potential and

thousands and thousands of new words

were added to its store by Shakespear­e's

time English is a rich and glorious

language and as the Plymouth pilgrims

set sail for America they took with them

flags to claim foreign lands their

English Bibles and this remarkable

there were new worlds for English to

discover and English itself was poised

to discover a new world of world


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