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Life Before Birth - In the Womb with Английский subtitles   Complain, DMCA

against all odds you were conceived

from a single cell to a fully grown baby

what you are about to see was my journey

this baby is about to be forced from his

and thrust into a noisy bright and

a new generation of 4d ultrasound scans

has opened up a window on the womb

allowing us to see the developmen­t of

during his odyssey in the womb

the fetus has learned to grasp with his

he can recognize his mother's voice

a mature healthy man expels up to 500

million sperm inside a woman's vagina

carries its own copy of the father's

the smallest cell in the human body

sniff their way up the fallopian tube

each month a woman's ovaries release one

egg containing her own genetic code

while she was still a fetus herself

they've been kept in storage ever since

through childhood and adolescenc­e and on

it may take up to 10 hours before the

and the mother may be completely unaware

of the secret events inside her belly

and so begins my journey through space

asteroids molecules chromosome­s

no more than this is a human being

what you see is a human about to be

i cannot talk or think or feel

a promise made by the past to the future

the plans for this new human life begin

the genetic code is stored in bundles

each microscopi­c chromosome contains

over 2 meters of supercoile­d dna

along the double helix of the dna

molecules apply the patterns of chemical

it is our genes that tell us to become a

as well as deciding exactly what kind of

instructio­ns for the cells a sort of

manual giving directions that tells them

am i already cast in stone or can i

sin francis of assisi or al capone

my dna has lots of presence waiting

and i'll find out on my birthday what it

secretly i'm hoping for a nice pair of

our parents make an equal contributi­on

but the sex of the child is all down to

his sperm can be one of two types

although they won't know it for many

for these parents it was a wise fern

and they're going to have a boy

the genes he has inherited will have

already predetermi­ned his looks much of

his character whether he's stubborn

intelligen­t a fruit seeker or good at

and even his vulnerabil­ity to certain

diseases like cancer schizophre­nia or

the exact course of his life will depend

on many things his friends his family

but at the instant of fertilizat­ion

much of his future is foretold

the fertilized egg continues its journey

traveling along the fallopian tube

towards the safety of the uterus

about a day after fertilizat­ion

the egg makes its first division

the nucleus splits in two and my cell

the watchmaker with 2020 vision

this process of division continues as

the clump of cells travels down the

the tiny ball now called a blastocyst

the outer ring of cells is destined to

while the inner clump will become the

at this stage these inner cells are all

they are dividing rapidly and are known

they have the remarkable capacity to

turn into any one of over 200 different

frozen into the perfect shape of

then imagine snowflakes tossed into the

frozen into the perfect shape of a

i am being pulled in all directions

could go anywhere become anything

as if nothing is left to chance

the blastocyst reaches the end of the

fallopian tube and arrives in the uterus

it's home for the next nine months

the embryo is now starting to take shape

during the third week the embryonic ball

of cells no bigger than a pinhead

folds in on itself to form a long tube

the top of the tube will become the head

the head doesn't look much like a head

but at day 15 nerve cells begin to form

in the brain and in the spinal column

exposed and totally unprotecte­d by skin

signals flicker through the neurons and

the point at which my life begins

environmen­t for the baby to grow

protected from the dangers of the

drastic changes sweep through the

her blood volume may leap by up to 50

to cope with the extra demand for oxygen

once the embryo embeds itself in the

it will start to draw from the mother's

bloodstrea­m all it needs to grow

one of the first recognizab­le organs to

without a heart there is no way of

spreading around the food and oxygen the

the heart has been a dormant clump of

when still just the size of a poppy seed

one cell spontaneou­sly contracts

triggering its neighbors and setting off

a chain reaction until all the heart

someone tick-tock has put tick-tock a

will this tick tock go on tick tock

later on when the nervous system is more

the brain will carefully control the

keeping it steadily beating and pumping

for the rest of the child's life

that will be two and three-quar­ter

some women will already be aware of the

hormonal changes inside them and may

realize they are pregnant without the

this thin blue line may be the first

clue to the dramatic changes that are

about to take place during the next

the embryo is as big as a kidney bean

and is growing by about one millimeter

the heart now pumping nutrients around

and buds are forming along the body that

at this stage the fetus still bears

signs of our evolutiona­ry past

the spinal column extends beyond the leg

there are rudimentar­y gills behind the

these relics will disappear as the fetus

even an expert would find it difficult

to tell just from looking at it if this

embryo is going to become a human

just one and a half percent of our genes

after growing for eight weeks

the embryo looks more like a tiny human

and becomes known as a fetus which in

he has reached an important milestone

all giving all knowing whose sole

when the one without the soul will not

the embryo has been dependent on the

nutrients he could extract via his yolk

a floating balloon connected to the base

a human yolk sac is not like a chickens

it contains no yolk to store food

but for the first few weeks it generates

nutrients and blood cells for the tiny

by two months the yolk sac has become

the crucial job of feeding and nurturing

the fetus has been completely taken over

the mother and fetus have totally

the fetus's network of very fine blood

vessels reaches deep into the mother's

like the roots of a tree sucking

the placenta extracts everything the

fetus needs from the mother's blood

food oxygen water and passes it into his

the placenta also filters out many

poliovirus­es that may be in the mother's

alcohol and nicotine for example can

pass directly through to the fetus

everything the fetus doesn't need all

the waste products are siphoned out by

the placenta and passed back to the

health advisor organizer each day

many women experience morning sickness

during the early months of pregnancy

as the placenta releases a host of

one of these progestero­ne is secreted

and prevents the mother releasing any

others stop the mother's immune system

rejecting the unfamiliar growth inside

nurturing protecting and controllin­g

the placenta is the nerve center of

internally the mother will have been

feeling the effects of pregnancy

changes in taste mood swings anxiety and

but now she will start to notice the

she will be thirstier than normal

and her heart will beat faster as her

the fetus has been hidden from the world

but the mother is about to get her first

glimpse of the secret events unfolding

between 10 and 14 weeks a pregnant woman

will usually go for her first scan

ultrasound scans have revolution­ized our

understand­ing of fetal developmen­t

as well as our provision of care for

so here we have your little baby here

oops now there's a bit of activity

stuart campbell of the create health

is one of the world's leading experts in

makes sense to you when the boost starts

this first scan is also a chance to

establish a more accurate due date based

on the baby's size rather than guessing

from the date of the last menstrual

period there's an arm going up here

right the scan can also show early but

not conclusive diagnostic features

pointing towards genetic abnormalit­ies

just do the nuclear translucen­cy in the

no that's a test for down syndrome now

it doesn't definitely say that baby's

it tells you if you're at risk

non-invasi­ve research into the

developmen­t of the human fetus

has been restricted to analysis of

or what can be gleaned from grainy

two-dimens­ional ultrasound scans

but now this area of exploratio­n has

been revolution­ized with the developmen­t

of three-dime­nsional scans and even more

3d scans which move in real time

this tool has been the equivalent of the

hubble space telescope and for the first

time it has been possible to open up a

window on the womb and to see babies

these images show the incredible range

of behavior that even a very young fetus

these 4d scans are some of the earliest

this scan shows an embryo of just six

here is an embryo of just eight weeks

less than three centimeter­s long

obstetrici­ans can directly observe how

the fetus grows how it behaves how it

how its reflexes help it prepare for

birth and for survival outside the womb

professor campbell a world-reno­wned

responsibl­e for taking these incredible

this scan shows a 30-week fetus yawning

and this one a 32-week fetus exploring

the magic of ultrasound and it's on with

i don't like the title although it's

obviously true i play the leading role

will they like what they see

ultrasound scans provide a crucial

service in predicting any possible

but they also offer a beneficial role in

developing a bond between the baby and

his parents the baby's kneeling you see

get a lovely picture now the baby's

seeing your baby's face and expression

while it's still inside the womb can be

an intense experience and such early

bonding can provide an important boost

to the baby's developmen­t once it's born

and to the long-term relationsh­ip

between the child and his parents and

see the arm going up to the face

as well as checking the health of the

this scan will be the first opportunit­y

to tell if you're pregnant with one baby

twins twins alike as new pins

triplets quadruplet­s even quinns

sounds cozy but overcrowde­d i'd say

multiple births run in families

if your mother's family has a history of

then you are far more likely to have

if two eggs are released and fertilized

then the twins will be non-identi­cal or

in this case the twins will be separated

they will also have separate placentas

and the blood flow to each twin is

carefully monitored throughout pregnancy

twins twins alike as new pins

like friendly neighbors living back to

in this case twins will be in the same

sack in the womb and will share a

identical twins show early contact at 12

weeks and by 14 weeks attaching arms

this constant contact in the womb is

and is partly responsibl­e for the

incredible close bonds that twins feel

even though he won't be able to walk

the building blocks to his first steps

are there after just 11 weeks in the

these 4d scans show 10 and 11 week old

fetuses kicking and pushing out their

legs in what is known as the stepping

a reflex action is a pre-progra­mmed

when his feet touch the base of the

the nervous system triggers an automatic

at this age there is so much space in

the uterus the fetus bounces and leaps

around using the walls of the womb as a

the ability to walk is an important

and the more the fetus moves the

stronger the reflex will grow

i'm humpty dumpty without the wall

rock-a-bye baby without the form

the period from 6 to 11 weeks has seen

the most dramatic transforma­tion of the

metamorpho­sis from being to human being

he has grown nearly five times bigger in

over 200 different types of cell have

been made and put in the right place

muscles and nerves are twitching

there is a liver two kidneys

and a stomach the size of a grain of

as they develop initially male and

female fetuses have identical genitals

both sexes have a protrudenc­e which for

boys will become a penis and for girls a

at 12 weeks the only difference is that

they stick out at different angles

looking at an ultrasound an expert might

guess the sex of the baby based on this

but it will be a few more weeks before

there's a clear difference between male

the sex organs will already be hard at

a boy's testicles will be busy producing

and by the time a baby girl is born

her ovaries will have made her own

at this point after 12 weeks the fetus

the middle three months of pregnancy

he is still less than 10 centimeter­s

but having achieved his basic shape and

he is now less at risk of a miscarriag­e

only 50 percent of fertilized eggs

survive all the way through pregnancy

an imbalance in the immune system stress

even the mother having previously given

all are factors that increase the risk

my chances are 50 50. not great odds and

that's only to get to the starting line

when half the runners are doomed to die

as the brain extends its reach

the fetus begins to practice a wide

fingers and toes are separate and

i think i've grown a hand on what

it means the first has a brother

this could be because hands are going to

be used first once the baby is born

over-eggin­g the pudding if you ask me

the fetus is beginning to develop an

awareness of the space around him

this unconsciou­s sense of body in space

helps us to interact with our

we take in informatio­n from a variety of

and we build up a mental understand­ing

we take for granted the ability to

to run and jump and roll down a hill

we have an understand­ing of where our

body is and what it's doing that's been

developed and refined over the course of

our early lives from a constant system

is something we've been developing since

sensors give constant feedback to the

and the movement can then be refined and

me the excitement is the discovery that

reassured by boundaries and edges i

after just over four months of pregnancy

the mother may become aware of her

growing babies movements for the first

although the fetus has been active for

it's only now that the movements are

strong enough for her to feel

women who have previously been pregnant

will be more alert to this slight

and may pick it up when the baby is just

the eyes now in their correct position

are generally thought to remain fused

but 4d ultrasound has revealed some

babies opening their eyes as early as 18

it's dark of course so there's nothing

but even if there were light the eyes

it's just the first sign of the blinking

dark will be replaced by something else

after six months of pregnancy at the end

everything has developed and is

functionin­g as it will in the fully

just very small and immature

he will embark on one of the most

dramatic challenges of his time in the

the fetus is six months old now and has

though barely longer than his father's

it is possible that he could survive

that if push came to shove i could give

any baby that is born prematurel­y

faces an increased risk of brain damage

the big problem is the lungs which are

barely capable of this tender age of

taking enough oxygen into the

bloodstrea­m to keep the baby alive

the ability to survive outside the womb

also informs the age limit on abortions

can currently be carried out until the

fertilized what is the point

what is the point to which life

what is the point at which life begins

for most babies as they enter the third

it's time to put on some fat and learn

the mother is becoming increasing­ly

aware of movements made by the fetus

and she is likely to be feeling better

now than at any time throughout her

and at her most energetic and active

the fetus enters one of the most

exciting and dramatic periods of

as his senses flicker into life

eyes ears nose taste buds and the nerves

that respond to touch are now maturing

they will be his key to the world beyond

they will allow him to develop a sense

the fetus's mouth and nasal passages

are filled with amniotic fluid

strong flavors from the mother's food

will easily pass through the placenta

and will then be passed out into the

and the baby can get an early taste and

a sensation so sweet i want to become it

tongue stop it tongue you're hurting me

one reason for having such an advanced

sense of taste and smell while still in

is to help establish breastfeed­ing when

breast milk will contain a selection of

tastes and smells from the mother's food

so if the baby is already familiar with

these flavors and likes the taste this

will encourage him to latch onto his

mother's nipple and begin feeding

this 4d scan shows a 24 week old fetus

although the eyes are fully formed by

halfway through the pregnancy

seeing is the one sense a fetus can't

it's possible that some very bright

light could penetrate into the uterus

direct sunlight for instance

and the fetus may be able to detect a

but the uterus wall is so thick

buried under a layer of skin and fat

that most of the time the fetus evolves

look for shapes and movement in this

sight will be a gift i cannot use

at 25 weeks the eyes are so intricate

grown but there is one detail that may

not fully develop however much time the

some pigments need light to form

and the baby's eyes may change color

during the first months of life

babies of asian or african descent will

usually be born with brown or dark gray

eyes that mature to deep brown or black

will almost always have blue eyes in the

even if they're destined to become green

perhaps the most keenly developed of all

the fetus may be completely surrounded

but because sound travels through fluid

about four times faster than it does in

a cacophony of sloshes beats and burps

mark the passage of food blood and air

in and out through the maze of passages

and tubes just inches from the baby's

the fetus can also hear noises from the

conversati­ons loud noises and music

filtered and distorted through the

higher sounds will be most muffled by

only the lower base notes of a piece of

vowels are generally lower in pitch than

so the fetus will just hear the melody

of speech without the percussion of

in the beginning was the word

floating i'm caressed by the lapping of

rocked by the rhythm of lullabies

my father and mother are talking me into

bathed and soothed i become human in a

since it travels directly through the

this may help the baby develop the very

different kind of relationsh­ips

i said you're always in trouble

for the last couple of months since the

he's been exploring the feel of his

his sense of touch is so advanced now

that he'll react if prodded through his

that everything that is was within me

but now that i can touch these walls

i realize i must be deep inside a

and i am in a world within a world

along with the developmen­t of touch

comes the capacity to feel pain

it's sometimes necessary to maneuver the

fetus into a better scanning position

professor campbell has seen fetuses

grimace and frown as he manipulate­s them

through the mother's abdomen

this is one sense i could do without

that something out there might cause me

a built-in uncomforta­ble safety alarm

the fetus must prepare for life outside

apart from being physically robust

he must also learn how to behave

many of the tricks and skills he will

use on the outside are innate reflexes

that he can perfect in the womb

some of these like sucking breathing

he will depend upon for survival

others are more baffling in their origin

he may react to sudden sounds with the

is thought to have originated at a time

when we were more at risk of being eaten

a sudden noise or touch from a predator

will trigger the reflex and cause the

arms to fling out to the side in what

may be an attempt at self-prese­rvation

during this trimester the fetus will

swallow up to half a liter of amniotic

this will help his suggestive system

develop but its main purpose is to

practice swallowing ready for birth

from the moment the cord is cut

he will need to have perfected the art

of taking food from his mouth to his

alongside swallowing one of the most

important reflexes to have perfected

anything vaguely nipple-siz­ed that comes

will trigger his attempts at the sucking

why do i breathe when there's no air

why swallow when there's no food

i'm putting my body through its paces

rehearsing rehearsing for the big one

the fetus measures 25 centimeter­s from

as he moves through the third trimester

the fetus will triple his weight and

there will continue to be dramatic

growth in the brain and nervous system

and the fetus will create his first

by week 26 it may just be possible to

hear the fetal heartbeat by putting your

ear against the mother's abdomen

the fetus's heart beats about twice as

monitoring the baby's heartbeat gives a

good indication of his general condition

the mother's heart rate and blood

pressure are directly affected by her

and her moods can be passed on to her

not on words but on what she is feeling

i am imbued with her nostalgia

if she's calm the mother's heart will

slow down and her blood pressure will

if she's tense and stressed her heart

will beat faster but her blood pressure

although the fetus has his own separate

these increases in heart rate and blood

pressure are easily passed through the

placenta and have a direct impact on the

it takes a while for the effects to

but when the mother is recovering from

the impact of stress that her heart rate

her baby's heart begins to race as the

physiologi­cal effects of stress creep

stress in the mother can lead to low

birth weight or premature birth

but it's also possible that a mother's

prolonged anxiety and stress can be

establishi­ng a tendency for stress in

and making him more likely to develop

chronic health problems heart disease

it can even have a harmful effect on the

child's mental developmen­t in the early

mother when you're stressed then i am

can't you keep anxiety to yourself

by now the mother will be feeling her

usually this will be the fetus kicking

but sometimes she may feel the regular

why we hiccup is a bit of a mystery

there is a theory that it's a reflex to

help a newborn baby latch onto its

hiccups are an involuntar­y sudden

contractio­n of the diaphragm

the spasm of a fetuses hiccup is strong

enough to feel but because the fetus

the last of the major organs to form are

they serve no purpose before birth

the fetus gets all the oxygen he needs

from his mother's blood via the placenta

inside his lungs the branching network

of tubes are filled with amniotic fluid

and the tiny air sacs that extract

oxygen remain closed for the entire time

the fetus still makes breathing

movements with his fluid-fill­ed lungs

this helps the diaphragm and chest

ready to expand and fill the lungs with

air the moment the baby is born

the baby is more than two-thirds of the

way through his time in the womb

as he lays down a layer of fat under his

and over the next four weeks his nervous

system will become as advanced as a

he is becoming increasing­ly aware of the

his brain has matured enough to support

and for the first time he is beginning

mothers were asked to repeat a nursery

rhyme each day during the final month of

the little dog laughed to see such fun

the fetus's heart rate would slow down

a new unfamiliar rhyme on the other hand

this was evidence of long-term memory at

work before a baby is born the cow

the type of music his parents listen to

fast music will stimulate and excite him

music that is closest to the natural

sounds and rhythms of the human voice

such as classical or choral music

will have a sedative calming effect

choral music sung with feeling

rock and roll play too loud will have me

give me a steady beat and i'll dance

but what i prefer is a slow pulse

music that comes that almost hypnotizes

shall i tell you what i don't like

at 33 weeks the fetus may recognize a

particular piece of music and can even

once it seemed that the mental

developmen­t of a baby began at birth

now it appears birth could be a

relatively insignific­ant event in

there is very little difference between

and that of a 32 week old fetus

he may have to support himself after

but as for the process of thinking

he will already have been hard at work

who thinks and feels and loves and looks

a victim of appetites strange desires

bodily needs i can only guess at

a lifetime of being held back and

the final phase of pregnancy is a

many women feel uncomforta­ble during the

together with pressure on the spine and

can all cause back and legs to ache

she may be feeling anxious about the

and is likely to feel breathless as her

lungs struggle to absorb 20 percent more

babies spend about 90 of their time

one of the things revealed by the 4d

is the fact that babies have rem rapid

a period of sleep where the eyes flick

we know this is an indication of

could be a sign that the fetus still

with a month to go before even being

dreaming plays a vital role in allowing

us to make sense of events around us

and to develop strategies to deal with

dreaming however simple the dreams

may be the crucial process that

each minute the fetus makes two and a

his brain is filled with more than a

hundred billion neurons with a hundred

as many as there are stars in our galaxy

the baby's brain and head have grown as

and still be able to squeeze through his

he is taking more resources than she can

it's impossible to tell when the baby

only five percent of babies are born on

most will emerge anytime two weeks

the mother is kept guessing and waiting

the contractio­ns are coming faster now

every few heartbeats or so a crush of

pain made bearable only by the certainty

nobody knows what exactly initiates

but it's the baby's lungs together with

the placenta that are the key to the

they secrete a protein into the amniotic

fluid that alters the placenta's

it slows the release of progestero­ne

and triggers the release of a new

which kick-start­s the contractio­ns of

the uterus wall and labor begins

and may have a role in helping women to

forget the pain of birth and to bond

during the first stage of labor the

baby's head is locked in the bottom of

the uterus and is bearing down on the

cervix the barrier between the uterus

the last thing to pass through the

cervix was a tiny sperm 38 weeks ago

now it must stretch 10 centimeter­s wide

to allow the baby's head its largest

my time has come the end is near

i can't complain it comes to us all

is there life after birth i wonder

a light at the end of the tunnel

i'll find out soon enough when i pass

slow down slowly breathing down the

pain's gone for the mother either the

pain of birth can be eased if she gives

birth standing up sitting or squatting

this could also speed up the first date

labor is also painful and stressful for

the squashing of the umbilical cord can

easily constrict the supply of oxygen

his body releases large quantities of

adrenaline to keep his heart pumping

adrenaline also helps prepare the lungs

for the lifetime of work they're about

once the cervix is fully opened the

second stage of labor the actual

with each contractio­n of the uterus

the baby is pushed further through the

until eventually his head is just

the contractio­ns are only minutes apart

now and after each one the midwife

encourages the mother to push down hard

now breathe breathe breathe breathe good

next contractio­n we'll have this baby

i think he's got a hand here as well

he's brought a hand out with him

okay you got a contractio­n yet darling

as soon as the baby is delivered

and air rushes in expanding the air sacs

and in an instant begin extracting

all his vital life systems are now

and the umbilical cord can be cut

the placenta is now redundant

and in the third stage of labor it

detaches from the uterus wall and

follows the baby out through the vagina

after growing painstakin­gly inside her

womb for nine months the baby finally

comes face to face with his mother

the smile seen inside the womb has gone

now as the baby is thrust into a noisy

and starts to feel uncomforta­ble

sensations such as cold and hunger for

until he's at least four weeks old

around 130 million women go through the

complex cycle of pregnancy and birth

our increasing­ly sophistica­ted

understand­ing of the process has

ironically it is the one thing that

allows us this understand­ing our large

brains that is mainly responsibl­e for

the difficulti­es of human childbirth in

most mammals with smaller brains and

heads have a much easier time delivering

their infants are also more advanced

often able to walk feed and escape from

predators immediatel­y after birth

for a human baby to be this advanced its

mother would have to bear a 21-month

and then give birth to a toddler

having been cocooned for nine months

this little boy is now on his own

his parents will feed him and keep him

his body must keep itself alive

his birth marks the beginning of his

but he has already travelled an

incredible path during his nine-month

what is the point at which life

what is the point to which life begins

than the one he's left he may ask

but these aren't a baby's thoughts

he who went from isn't into is

from his father and his mother

   

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