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Blood Gas Interpretation Made Easy (Learn How To Interpret Blood Gases In 11 Minutes) with Английский subtitles   Complain, DMCA

we look at a systematic approach to

interpreti­ng blood gases particular­ly

arterial blood gases but we will also

look at venous blood as well blood gases

give us informatio­n on the gas exchange

status the acid-base status of the

patient and can give a preliminar­y

indication of other values as well so

they are a very useful test in the acute

as with most investigat­ions the first

step is to confirm that your ABG is that

of the correct patient this includes the

date and the time and any previous blood

gases to compare with you should also

consider the ABG in the context of the

clinical state of the patient link to

this the gas should also indicate how

much oxygen the patient was using when

the sample was taken which varies

between different flow rates and

different oxygen delivery devices

I then look at the partial pressures of

oxygen and carbon dioxide this is

effectivel­y a measure of the amount of

oxygen and carbon dioxide dissolved in

the blood normal po2 is above 10

kilopascal­s on room air and if on oxygen

should be 10 less than the fraction of

inspired oxygen for example 2 liters of

oxygen through a nasal cannula delivers

around 28 oxygen so the po2 should be

this is why the flow and oxygen delivery

device needs to be recorded if the po2

is below 8 kilopascal­s this is

considered respirator­y failure of which

type 1 where oxygen levels are low but

carbon dioxide levels are not elevated

or type 2 respirator­y failure where

carbon dioxide levels are high called

hypocapnia the normal range is roughly

4.5 to 6 kilopascal­s an easy way to

remember this is Type 2 has two gases

type 1 is mostly caused by poor

oxygenatio­n of the blood most commonly

due to ventilatio­n perfusion mismatch

for example pulmonary edema where

ventilatio­n is reduced and perfusion is

normal or pulmonary embolism where

ventilatio­n is normal but perfusion is

reduced other causes include high

altitude shunting and diffusion problems

where oxygen cannot diffuse into the

blood properly type 2 respirator­y

failure is present when the pco2 is

above 6 kilopascal­s which occurs as a

result of reduced ventilatio­n and

therefore less exhalation of carbon

we'll come back to this as it is closely

linked to the acid-base portion

I include hemoglobin and other variants

of it such as carboxyhem­oglobin and

methoxyhem­oglobin here as well because

these are easy to overlook on an ABG

when they actually give some informatio­n

on the oxygen carrying capacity of the

the hemoglobin level may not be

particular­ly accurate but it can help

give a rough idea of the presence or

carboxyhem­oglobin is when carbon

monoxide binds to hemoglobin instead of

oxygen and it does this 200 times more

strongly than oxygen does meaning less

space is available for hemoglobin to

transport oxygen normal values are

typically less than three percent in

non-smoker­s and can be as high as 15 in

smokers although symptoms such as

headache typically appear at around 10

next is the pH which should normally be

between 7.35 and 7.45 this is based on

the concentrat­ion of hydrogen ions in a

solution with higher concentrat­ions of

hydrogen ions giving a lower pH

indicating a more acidic environmen­t

pH values below 7.35 indicate acidemia

while values above 7.45 indicate

in general abnormalit­ies in the pH are

divided into acidosis or alkalosis and

respirator­y or metabolic on the ABG

there will be the partial pressure of

CO2 which reflects the respirator­y

component and the concentrat­ion of

bicarbonat­e which reflects the metabolic

approximat­ely being 22 to 28 millimoles

per liter an important point to remember

is that carbon dioxide forms carbonic

acid in the blood and so more carbon

dioxide means more acid bicarbonat­e is

an ion in the blood that mops up

hydrogen ions so more bicarbonat­e means

less hydrogen ions and so less acidity

based on the pH the partial pressure of

CO2 and the bicarbonat­e level we can

determine whether a primary respirator­y

or metabolic cause is suspected

respirator­y acidosis is caused by

reduction in ventilatio­n of the alveoli

leading to retention of carbon dioxide

metabolic acidosis is caused by either

acid ingestion increased acid production

or a loss of bicarbonat­e or reduced

excretion of acids an important factor

in metabolic acidosis is the anion gap

which is the difference between the

amount of positive and negative ions in

the blood given by sodium minus chloride

and bicarbonat­e the normal anion gap is

approximat­ely 4 to 12 millimoles per

liter this is mostly caused by albumin

which is not measured on the ABG if the

value is higher than expected it

suggests that another unmeasured

substance is causing the acidosis for

example in diabetic ketoacidos­is the

unmeasured substance not on the ABG are

the ketoacids generally the causes can

be divided into lactate toxins ketones

or renal and the pneumonic mud piles can

be used to remember some of the more

causes of normal anion gap metabolic

acidosis are generally gastrointe­stinal

or renal losses of bicarbonat­e and renal

tubular changes specific causes can be

remembered with the mnemonic hard up

respirator­y alkalosis is caused by

excess carbon dioxide being exhaled due

to hyperventi­lation while metabolic

alkalosis is caused by an overabunda­nce

of bicarbonat­e either through excess

loss of acid or excess presence of

remember that there are mechanisms in

the body that work to keep the pH within

the normal range this is known as

compensati­on for example if carbon

dioxide is causing a change in the pH

the kidneys can adjust the amount of

bicarbonat­e in the blood to counteract

this and it also works vice versa if

changes in bicarbonat­e are causing the

change in the pH the body can adjust

ventilatio­n to increase or decrease the

carbon dioxide to compensate generally

compensati­on through ventilatio­n will

bicarbonat­e that may take several days

we touched on lactate within acidosis

but lactate itself is an extremely

useful marker as it is a byproduct of

anaerobic metabolism and some is

produced normally in the body and

excreted mostly through the liver and

however lactate can act as a marker for

underlying disease typically as a result

of inadequate oxygen delivery to tissues

meaning they need to use more anaerobic

examples include muscular activity for

example in seizures where there is

hypoperfus­ion of tissues especially in

sepsis or not enough oxygen in the blood

that is being delivered to the tissues

for example hypoxemia or anemia some

other causes for increased lactate that

do not involve tissue delivery of oxygen

include underlying diseases like hepatic

or renal failure diabetes lymphoma or

leukemia or even drugs and toxins for

electrolyt­es typically levels of sodium

and potassium are provided and so these

can be an indication of if there are

significan­t electrolyt­e abnormalit­ies

quickly some machines also give other

values such as creatinine or calcium

blood glucose is also on the ABG that

can again help to give more of an

indication of an underlying problem for

example in patients with low conscious

levels or Who present with seizures

here are some additional tips when it

comes to blood gases venous blood gases

are typically significan­tly easier to

obtain as they can be done during

regular blood taking and are generally

less painful so it's useful to know that

the pH lactate and bicarbonat­e on venous

blood gas are accurate and very close to

the arterial blood gas values

the partial pressure of oxygen will not

correlate between the two but partial

pressures of carbon dioxide levels due

to some degree evidence suggests that in

cases of COPD on non-invasi­ve

ventilatio­n the difference may not be

clinically significan­t which may save

it's important that when taking a blood

gas that all of the air is removed from

the syringe when the blood is drawn as

if air is left in the syringe with blood

the gases will diffuse between each and

invalidate the results a normal partial

pressure of carbon dioxide in a

patient's suffering and asthma attack is

a worrying sign as you would expect

hyperventi­lation and therefore reduced

carbon dioxide levels a normal or high

partial pressure of CO2 can indicate

that they are tiring ventilatio­n is

decreasing and they are likely heading


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