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the question 1963 that I first developed

an interest in murderer or Wagner as my

speech synthesise­r pronounces him

partner more than any other person

had the ability to compose music that

has an emotional effect that reaches a

he wasn't must have been awful difficult

man betrayed everything at everybody for

I'm a survivor of Auschwitz I cannot be

Russian with a person was the first to

preach a separation of races the first

in fact who created the notion of a

nation of masters which should rule the

we still have survivors from the death

camps like myself I'm a survivor of

Auschwitz and other camps why should an

Israel should be performed adnan part of

Wagner's fascinatio­n is that there are

so many people who still feel so

incredibly negative and disgusted by him

as a musician and as a as a person as a

personage and that keeps it alive Magne

for me is indispensa­ble it's an antidote

to all this turbulence here in New York

it's sublime music it's like therapy for

that's when Bogner comes in to the

Richard Wagner was born in Leipzig on

the 22nd of May 1813 the ninth child of

Johanna and Karl Friedrich Varna a

police official in those days Leipzig

was a city occupied by French troops at

the end of the Napoleonic Wars Richard

spent his formative years in Leipzig but

a mystery surrounds the details of his

birth his father died soon after his

baptism and his mother immediatel­y

arranged for the family to live with an

actor and painter Ludwig Gaia now the

question is whether she was already

having an affair with Gaia during the

period when Wagner was born whether he

was actually conceived by Gaia or not

Gaia is a Jewish name which doesn't mean

that everybody who is called Gaia is

Jewish question is whether vogner

thought he was Jewish and he was himself

called Gaia until the age of fifteen

Richard guy had to sign himself

Richard Gaia in school which meant a

kind of identity change when he changed

the name to vogner his first musical

experience was learning to play a chorus

on the piano from Faber's death I should

and the important thing about that for

he learned to compose by getting a book

about how to harmonize bass lines the

truth is that I think he was taught more

than he lets on because the image he

wants to give in his autobiogra­phy is of

the great genius like Z freed sort of a

musical z feel you can do music without

necessaril­y being taught there was a man

called Muller who he went to and found

he couldn't pay there was a man called

vine Lee it looks as though vine Lee in

particular gave him really a pretty good

basic rounding in fairly up-to-date

techniques of writing symphonies

clearly Beethoven was a tremendous

influence on vogner and Varner always

like to claim that Beethoven was growing

out of the symphony by writing the ninth

the voices came in and and so of course

heading towards the great music dramas

of vogner it may be that he really felt

that I maybe did he liked her to fit

Beethoven into his own portrait after a

brief spell at Leipzig University vogner

worked as a chorus master in provincial

opera houses and composed his first two

operas forbidden love in the style of

light Italian opera and the fairies

influenced by Carl Maria von Weber the

most popular German composer of the day

when vogner was 21 he fell in love with

the actress mena planner who soon became

his wife I think in the case of Varga

and Manor it seems to have been an

attraction of opposites in Wagner's

highly emotional and highly articulate

and highly ambitious and intellectu­ally

curious and Meena was well none of those

things but she was physically attractive

and also domesticat­ed and socially

accomplish­ed it was when he changed and

grew and developed that she didn't know

how to cope with him and very much

resented the fact that he wouldn't use

his evident talent just to earn enough

money to pay the bills he was always in

debt and always borrowing money and not

paying people back and she found it all

a nightmare and she had a sort of what

would nowadays be called a suburban soul

and he couldn't stand it eventually it

was at the German Opera House in Riga

the capital of Latvia where vogner

secured his first important post as

conducted this is all that's left of the

theater in Riga where viola conducted

this is the ballroom that still extant

beneath whose the theatre no longer in

existence but there are plans that still

exist for it Varga remembered three

things about the theatre first that it

was dark second that the stalls were

raped upwards like an amphitheat­er and

third that the orchestra pit was a

sunken pit these three ideas he kept in

mind for his ideal theatre later in by

Rikka was hugely important for Varna

Bertha's composer and as a conductor as

a conductor he rehearsed nearly 40

operas and he performed some of his own

compositio­ns in the main concert hall

here in the Schwarz Hoyt bazaar as a

composer he composed the first two acts

of Rienzi and an interestin­g little song

called their Tannenbaum which he later

said was one of the first compositio­ns

where his own voice comes to the fore he

said he composed it in a livonian

Latvian key it sort of sounds like this

- sound and it reminds one very much of

his later masterpiec­e the ring sounds

like this which are typically vagnie

area you can already hear in his early

song it's the first compositio­n of

Wagner's that's really his while he was

composing re NC vogner started to make

sketches for the flying dutchman in riga

always living beyond his means his debts

mounted and to avoid imprisonme­nt he

fled from his creditors a pattern that

would recur throughout his life he

managed to escape to the baltic coast

and got on a ship on a very stormy trip

to paris this is where Wagner's career

really begins and the flying dutchman

vogner arrived in paris in 1839 when he

was 26 and lived there for the next

three years Paris was not only Europe's

most glamorous city it was also the

bargainers ambition was to become its

brightest star it's common knowledge but

wagner was very very poor in Paris when

he stayed for the first time and

potatoes work of course is kind of money

for every day because he had absolutely

no possibilit­y to eat meat it was unable

to earn money it wasn't able to have his

music with success providing money for

him so he spent time are begging money

from his friends in Germany or in France

the most successful musician in Paris

Meyerbeer who offered Wagner help and

encouragem­ent but despite this vogner

failed to secure a single performanc­e of

his operas he perceived that the musical

life of Paris was dominated by a Jewish

clique and feeling himself an outsider

used this as a convenient excuse for his

own failure in order to make ends meet

arrangemen­ts of operas by another Jewish

composer Jacques la vie this was slave

work for the from the point of view of a

composer who thought him of himself is

the great composer in the world he was

invited to breakfast with La Vie to talk

about his work for the transcript­ion and

he was there with several journalist­s

and at a certain point in the

conversati­on everybody was speaking

French La Vie of courses native French

speaker poor Bogner doesn't speak French

very well so at a certain point la vie

turns to him in German and says

something and the French journalist­s who

see this are quite surprised and they

say what we didn't know that a litmus

really we could speak German and he

turns to them and says Oh didn't you

all Jews can speak German so vogner in

this moment is suddenly in the company

of Holly V a Jew and I think if one

looks at Wagner's subsequent turned to

the anti-semit­ic writings that we know

contaminat­ion the fear that he has been

too close to what he describes as being

or decadent or modern and therefore the

effort always to distance himself from

that rien see it is an attempt to

bargain himself admitted to outdo my a

beer and a levy who were the two leading

lights on the French operatic stage at

the time and in terms of its length and

bombastic certainly achieves that aim it

is quite remarkable that he was able to

write their fleeting the whole ending

almost the same breath as the final

sketches for rien say because the to do

masterpiec­e small masterpiec­e but a

masterpiec­e and he found what he could

do and he found the themes that were

going to stay with him through all the

others um love death redemption and

that's what he's uh preserve a true

The Flying Dutchman is the story of a

sailor doomed to travel the Seas forever

until he's redeemed by the love of a

faithful woman in Paris vogner had

fashionabl­e topics of mesmerism and the

subconscio­us he used these ideas in the

flying dutchman and all his subsequent

music in that period there was a famous

book published enjoyed by someone called

nmos all about magnetism that describes

dreaming and sleepwalki­ng and says that

the consciousn­ess is more awake when

sleeping than it is when someone is

when Center listens to a dream recounted

by her fiance Eric and Varga writes in

the stage direction center sinks into a

magnetic sleep and dreams the dream that

Eric is telling her about it's a very

sophistica­ted psychologi­cal observatio­n

in 1842 on my ABARES recommenda­tion rien

si received its premiere at The Dresden

Opera House it proved to be the biggest

nowadays Rienzi is not regarded as one

neverthele­ss made him famous throughout

Europe and won him the prestigiou­s post

of Royal kapellmeis­ter to the King of

in Dresden at the age of only 29

at Dresden he was able to spend money on

establishi­ng himself as a composer who

was also an intellectu­al and he began

the fascinated and sometimes intensive

reading of philosophe­rs particular­ly

Hegel as far as Hegel was concerned

music had come to an end with Beethoven

this gave Varna and natural stimulus to

develop a new style of music which would

both oppose and also surpass anything

in tannhäuser and Lohengrin vogner's

mission was now to change the concept of

German opera basing his stories on

Teutonic myth and legend he also pushed

the limits of his sound world to new

extremes both on the stage and in the

orchestra the orchestra before Varna was

used with great brilliance and mastery

by all kinds of different composers to

do lots of different things but vogner

inherits all that and fills out the gaps

he locks and ranks his orchestra in

choirs so the range of color is much

greater but also the range of sonority

and blend Lohengrin is based on an

ancient German text and is the tale of a

knight of the Holy Grail who appears

miraculous­ly to save a condemned woman

and marries her on condition she doesn't

ask his name but she succumbs to

curiosity on her wedding night and

Lohengrin is forced to return to his

spiritual world an amazing sound world

he does it across a lone room by using

rooms entirely violins yes violin is

divided into three different sects with

all all internally divided some of them

playing normally and others playing on

harmonic see it's an amazing idea and

after a while all the violins tick off

together you don't hear any cello

bedroom when you're lower instrument­s at

all for that opening striking idea

I think that this worked for the first

time he felt that he'd reached the kind

of stretching of music there is

something very seductive about this and

the entire opera has been conceived in a

very cohesive way to exploit this power

of music to draw you in and to give you

the feeling that it's giving you

something that you lack in your real

life in am long run return line at war

understand workin me and swauk boss bore

us off yield analyse becau he was turned

on by Greek tragedy and he saw that the

subject for their dramas which had music

was always myth wife Argonaut argued the

reason why myth is because myth is not

limited by history myth enshrines

timeless truths love and hate and all

those subjects that is the stuff of

drama where Favara most powerfully

represente­d in in myth vogner believed

that by incorporat­ing universal themes

in his work he could actually change the

world in which he lived but he was

convinced there needed to be a

The Dresden Revolution of 1848 was an

attempt to unify Germany into one nation

from a mere confederat­ion of small

states as an ardent nationalis­t vogner

was an enthusiast­ic participan­t in the

uprising but he also believed that this

was the revolution which would bring him

closer to achieving his radical artistic

goals what's actually government did

simply to send the troops him so this

made the revolution is even more angry

at this point that the Russian anarchist

Bakunin a wild man of 19th century

European politics began to organize a

I had Valder going up church steeples to

keep a lookout for the Prussian army on

the horizon Otto no avail of course the

Prussians came in were mass arrests

quite a severe repression and the whole

thing was closed down Volga had to flee

then the old order was restored

to avoid imprisonme­nt and possible

execution vogner now 35 fled to Zurich

with the help of the composer Franz

Liszt fired with political further he

stopped composing for four years to

write a huge volume of theoretica­l

essays which laid out his criteria for a

new idealistic artwork of the future

this he named the gazaam constic or

total art form which included music

poetry dance and visual spectacle Wagner

believed that this new performanc­e

concept which he called music drama

would raise art above the level of mere

entertainm­ent the level to which he

believed it had sunk in a bourgeois

capitalist society he continued to

explore these themes in his most

controvers­ial booklet Judaism in music

in which he held the Jews responsibl­e

for everything in German art that was

derivative and mediocre this work hangs

as a great shadow over vogner's life and

reputation especially as his music later

became a symbol for Nazism when Hitler

and the Nazi regime used Vargas theories

to support their own racist ideology

firstly the anti-semit­ism is crucial to

his life his whole vision of life his

personal life his relationsh­ip secondly

it's absolutely central to his

revolution­ary theory about the

redemption of the human race especially

led by the Germans obviously thirdly

it's connected up with his socialisti­c

and other critiques of society bourgeois

capitalism and of morals bourgeois

morals he doesn't like for example to

take a trivial case the Ten Commandmen­ts

they're Jewish because they forbid

adultery and that's inconvenie­nt for him

so you know he actually says this you do

away with the Ten Commandmen­ts a Jewish

plot it's not just something that's sort

of little side dish it's absolutely

central to him to his whole being so as

he says it's as vital to my being as

golus to the blood he says that to list

he really I think became seriously

anti-semit­ic after the failure of his

efforts in the 1848 2/9 revolution

vogner thought in his usual rather

self-cente­red way that a revolution in

and revolution­ised German music and

German culture and when this proved not

to be the case he had a very serious

rethink in 1848 and it's that that let

him then to write as notorious tract on

Judaism in music just a few months later

and his real concern was to try and

regenerate the spirit of what he

regarded as German music and he used

Mendelssoh­n as a kind of symbol of

everything he hated in Zurich Wagner

began what is arguably his greatest

musical masterpiec­e the ring of the

Nibelungen length consisting of four

operas the Rhine gold the Valkyrie

Siegfried and twilight of the gods it

took vogner an astounding 26 years to

compose he has the idea of combining a

an opera libretto that's as complex

psychologi­cally and dramatical­ly as

Shakespear­e with a musical score that's

as complex in terms of structure and

form as Beethoven so Shakespear­e plus

Beethoven equals vogner he has to

rethink his musical style he has to make

it more symphonic he has to rethink his

he has to make them more mythical more

psychologi­cal more Universal if he likes

his way he sees Shakespear­e so by the

time he begins the ring he's worked out

a system where this equation of

Shakespear­e plus Beethoven equals vogner

the ring of the Nibelungen three main

characters vote on king of the gods

Brunhilde his daughter and siegfried her

lover the story revolves around the

possession of a ring of gold which

promises world dominance to anyone

willing to renounce love it is a tale of

heroism greed betrayal as well as love

and redemption it's very very at peace

it's about human failure murderer incest

what you want everything which is

what defies for ornette people

understand­ing is the truth that one man

could carry in him the totality of that

design could somehow construe from the

first note to the last a coherent

immensity of a complexity which defies

the music itself is sometimes highly

dramatic because of the fact that it is

declaimed people who sing beautifull­y

certain Italian areas miss totally the

expression in Wagner's music and people

who cannot sing beautifull­y and who only

barked their way the sort of famous

Valyrian bark with the excuse of making

the text understand­able is also only

part of the truth I'm sure that part of

the the earlier and the the captivatio­n

of Wagner is that his music never really

addressed practicali­ties and in many

ways it is totally impossible to perform

and staged which means that it remains

an enigma only very recently I think

that we begun to find von Hilda's who

are credible on stage as well as able to

some composers you have to look at a

line and say now how do I make music out

of that vogner composes it it's all

there whether it's from the dynamics

whether it's the shaping with the words

I have to do is sing what's written from

the technical standpoint their marathon

rolls you know why you're tired the next

that's not your voice that's tired it's

your body that's tired your feet it's

your knees it's you know it's your back

it's it's maybe maybe the the muscles

that you need you know to to make your

support system work properly it's

physically exhausting that's what a lot

of people don't realize in the ring

Berkeley used a unique musical device

called the light motif it was to become

the single most important structural and

stylistic element in all his subsequent

music well the light motif begins in

simply showing something someone

somewhere by means of musical sound well

for instance the Rheingold itself the

the sort of title theme of the whole

ring for the first time you hear that

it's brilliantl­y placed as a very

memorable sonorous image you just hear

the girls sing Rheingold to those two

chords it's beautifull­y orchestrat­ed you

can once you've heard that you can't

and so whenever that recurs throughout

the next 14 or 15 hours it will have

that connotatio­n the whole adventure of

the gold is carried by those two cords

which in turn decay and become blackened

and the sound of Rheingold in gutter

Demerol is one of the blackest sounds

the pressures of exile had a devastatin­g

effect on Gardner's marriage and minute

becomes sympatheti­c to her husband's

ambitions vogner soon began to have a

number of liaisons with other women

the most famous of partners extramarit­al

affairs was up with Mathilda faizon donk

it took place here what a vision donk

was a wealthy German merchant in 1851 he

retired to Zurich his wife Matilda was

only 23 at the time they soon made the

acquaintan­ce of arrgh now we're happy to

assist the struggling artist the vase

Noctua nouveau riche and to them

patronage of the Arts was an important

form of social acceptance so you could

say that bargainers is important to the

vase and aunts as they were to him they

provided him with the means to compose

he provided them with the opportunit­y to

brush with genius they were kind of

living in a house at the bottom of the

vase and donks garden in Zurich being

propped up by the charity of water vase

and dog and he fell in love with much

Eldersburg very very idealistic and

intense kind of way in Pullman it was

you know the nagging wife at the bottom

of the garden not still surprising him

I'm kind of feeling sorry for her when

Wagner met Matilda vase and donk he

interrupte­d work on the ring while

writing Siegfried to begin a new work

Tristan and his older an opera about two

lovers whose passion for each other is

so intense it can only be consummate­d in

death Matilda was I think about 15 years

younger than varmint sophistica­ted and

cultured in a way that the increasing­ly

from bish you know wasn't and the two of

them was certainly attracted to each

other that whether the relationsh­ip was

over consummate­d we shall never know and

I don't think it matters really he's

part of that there's something slightly

distastefu­l about sniffing the sheets in

that way but also I can't convince

myself that it throws any light on

Tristan by pointing out parallels

between Varga and Matilda not on the one

hand and first time his older on the

Tristan and Isolda is inextricab­ly

connected with the writings of art to a

shopping Hara with whose theories vogner

Schopenhau­er argued that human behavior

is governed not by the intellect but by

the irrational impulses of the human

will which includes ambition love hate

and importantl­y for Tristan and his

older sexual desire one possible release

from this torment of life is death Varro

clearly at that point when he when he

when he took on just on his older you

wanted to write something that was

really really differentl­y he thought of

all the things he could do to make it

more different and more striking

the opening phrase of tristan under

Zolder ends on a chord which leaves us

all up in the air waiting for a

resolution which doesn't come

bargainer gives a kind of prominence to

a feeling of non resolution which was

unique in the history of harmonic

language up till that time and in that

way alone it stands out in his work as

one of the two or three major musical

events of the whole of the 19th century

vogner fled to Venice in 1858 at the age

of 45 when men are discovered his affair

with Matilda vase and donk and it was

there in his favorite city that he

completed the second act of Tristan and

reconcilia­tion with Mina he would never

it's a paradox with dressing in some

circles became scandalous because it's

obviously music is recreating the sexual

orgasm it's saying at the same time we

have to be redeemed from the sexual

impulse the whole point of life is that

through death you're you're actually

purged of this terrible sort of sex

you're longing that you have in life

that gives a curse on your life

when he'd finished Tristan and his older

bergna was at a low ebb both financiall­y

and emotionall­y his relationsh­ip with

Matilda vase and donk had come to an end

and although her husband continued to

support him financiall­y vogner was

without the means to realize his musical

fortuitous­ly the Emperor of France

Napoleon the third commission­ed a new

production of Tann Heuser in Paris in an

attempt to build warmer relations with

Austria and its ambassador whose wife

was a keen supporter of vogner Varna

seize the opportunit­y of doing something

really quite spectacula­r in Paris and

begins to revise Tann Heuser in the

spirit of Tristan and his older so he

rewrites the bacchanal which is which is

Tristan music plot it's actually the

most extreme piece in my view the power

is back on our music is the most extreme

tannoy sir is the story of a knight

who's faithful lover buys his Redemption

with her death after he succumbs to the

orgy astok pleasures of the venusberg a

mythical world where love reigns freedom

was a fiasco not on the whole because of

its musical qualities for better or

worse but simply because of the

political feelings the anti Austrian

political feelings of a well-organ­ized

part of its audiences vogner was being

made the scapegoat for the conservati­ve

swing in the Emperor Napoleon's

political alliances the hotness reaction

to this thing's been curiously muted and

and I think that's because he had come

to loathe Paris and it's always nice to

have one's prejudices confirmed and I

think that the failure of tannoy was

simply confirmed in him the belief of

the French was frivolous and Philistine

and above all foreign and that they were

never going to be able to appreciate

German art Wagner's second attempt to

take Paris by storm left him desolate

suicidal and desperate for success he

used every opportunit­y to plead for help

in order to realize his visionary

ambitions and complete the ring there

really wasn't much of a market for 15

our epic dramas without tunes and

so most of art nerds grounding letters

were in fact attempts to raise money to

create this challengin­g new artwork an

artwork that was going to change the

course of operatic history violence

greatest patron and the man who was

directly responsibl­e for him being able

to complete the ring was ludwig ii of

bavaria Ludvik knew all about german

legend from his earliest childhood so he

lived in that dream world of those myths

long before vogner came into his life

how I go was built in the 12th century

by the Knights of shuang go and ludwig

grew up here with all these legends on

lowing green the story about this one

light and this was part of his life

solutely did not live only in history

this has to be the ultimate 19th century

Dream Theater Ludwig's venous grotto at

schloss linderhof a private grotto where

he could experience for himself all the

delights of the Venus bag this is her

grotto and the painting that you see

behind there shows Venus surrounded by

all her Cupid's and become tis missing

from the picture is Tann Heuser himself

and of course Tann Heuser was king

suddenly the myths that had been simply

on the dining room wall is it worth

suddenly they were on the stage and with

the magic of armless music Ludvik felt

that they'd brought the myths right into

his life he therefore became quite belly

on of Agni rien if you like and in the

preface to the publicatio­n of the Ring

poem in 1863 this preface ends up with a

great Creed occur from Varna I've half

composed this thing I'm in terrible

trouble it needs some body to rescue me

to come to my aid so that I can complete

the Rings build the theater to perform

it somewhere there must be a prince who

could do that well when Ludwig read this

are living a sort of bohemian life in a

hotel drinking champagne to forget his

troubles and when he got to Munich

Ludwig I said I'll give you enough money

to give you even more champagne I'll

give you anything you want I'll offer

you the kind of luxury and vogner saw

this of course he always wanted luxury

the sort of luxury you see behind me

here in this famous Hall of Mirrors

inherent law schemes eh this is the kind

of thing magnate wanted he saw himself

as a prince of art on the one hand and a

revolution­ary of art on the other hand

so Ludwig made him live out this other

part of his personalit­y and this is

he built a house for him and he had

actually this house elaboratel­y

decorated with silks and satins and

elaborate furniture but the important

thing is also that lovey gave him the

opportunit­y to elaborate his life in the

public sphere as well finally at the age

of 51 Varga would enjoy premieres of

Tristan and his older and the master

singers of Nuremberg his only comic

opera a nationalis­tic tribute to German

art he also began plans to build an

opera house dedicated solely to the

performanc­e of his own music dramas

behind us we have the Maximilian

Strasser they one of the main streets in

Munich named after a little bit the

second grandfathe­r the importance of the

road is though it has this their sigh

effect leading up to this huge building

here this Maximilian and Varga wanted a

same kind of street just a few yards

along leading up to his own Opera House

it would have been then and now the

biggest opera house ever built

I'm the one to them Figaro from his

house in the Breanna Strasser rise

across the middle of Munich he wants to

flatten half the old town of Munich

leading right up to his new Opera House

the biggest in Europe Ludwig the second

sir I can imagine the crowd screaming

into this road right up to your Opera

House which is going to be next to the

building my grandfathe­r built the

maximum and it's going to be art and

politics architectu­re side by side

pardonnez Dream Theater was never built

because of its exorbitant cost and it's

extremely unpopular reception with

Munich city authoritie­s but once again

partners personal life took a new path

conductor very sympatheti­c to partners

music was this talented but rather

stuffy and prosaic Prussian figure hands

for Lulu who was married to this

beautiful daughter of list and Cosimo is

I suppose before I mean if it is

certainly Faulkner short sir she looks

bit like a horse but she was visual not

began more with and she provided what I

think to be fair to phone he'd always

wanted which was somebody a serious

minded enough to talk or listen to him

talking endlessly and be efficient and

she was totally without her sense of

humor it was her great snag thing you

rather minded that she worshiped him

with an idolatry bordering on

hagiograph­y and she kept his eyelashes

and carried them around with her as if

there were some holy relic and I think

with Arden rather warmed to this and

combinatio­n of servile enthusiasm and

relationsh­ip very soon produced an

illegitima­te daughter the affair between

Wagner and Cosimo soon became the

scandal of Bavaria then Europe but

vogner's relationsh­ip with Ludwig was

also threatened because the King's

family felt he was lavishing too much

money on the composer Wagner was exiled

once again in Switzerlan­d but we came to

Lucerne in 1866 he was travelling with

his companion as she done was Cosimo von

Bulow not yet his wife on a boating trip

one day they discovered the villa

attrition decided to acquire it here at

repzion Wagner worked on zigfried which

he had taken up again after a long pause

here also he wrote the zigfried hill

for Frogner the Idul was a very special

memento of his relationsh­ip with Cosimo

celebratin­g the birth of their son

Siegfried the Idul was conceived as a

birthday greeting for Cosimo and it was

first performed early on the morning of

her birthday in December 1875 nough had

secretly gathered a group of musicians

together and they took up their places

on the stairs here bargaining himself

stood at the head of the stairs

conducting four children by his side

luckily cassandra who had been asleep in

her bedroom woke to hear the world

premiere of her birthday greeting

shortly before vogner moved to trypsin

Meena died enabling him to marry Kozma

in the more settled atmosphere of his

new home vogner was able to continue

work on the ring after an astonishin­g 12

year gap as well as finished the master

singers of Nuremberg it has been argued

that during this period of agna began to

integrate his racial theories into the

characters of his music dramas as a man

of the theater it seems likely he could

increasing­ly anti-semit­ic responses in

his audience back Messer in de Maistre

Singh of a Nuremberg and Mima in XIII

are the two that are usually discussed

and what I'd like to draw attention to

is the fact that they have inferior

bodies a motif appears that vogner

associates explicitly with Beck message

poor perambulat­ion and that motif is um

but I'm tanana pom pom pom and that

motif accompanie­s Beck Messer hobbling

all over the place there are musical

examples that pertain to the fact that

the Jew was perceived to have a high

nasal whining voice Bek Messer is a bass

but he sings at times as high as a held

I lost my is the suction of us new fuses

Argosy boxin ospina 3d t looks like a

juice across her forehead is much less

he seemed a and behind star entry trend

para to most of all you've got this

incredible first act of Siegfried which

is not some violent anti-semit­ic thing

amazing conceivabl­e if you listen to the

MENA versus seek feet huge conclusion

the whole forging see we got the heroic

music and words of Siegfried forging a

sword combined with a wheedling whinging

interjecti­on by nima you know he's

cooking a broth made out of eggs with

tin pots and here is Siegfried forging

the real steel so the difference between

real heroism with human degenerati­on

personifie­d is the Jew in Lima vagueness

anti-semit­ism this speaker were horrible

unacceptab­le and yet it was part of the

tight guys at the time I don't think you

could be a German nationalis­t which he

was at the end of the 19th century

without being an anti-semit­e in 1869 the

already strained relationsh­ip between

Ludwig and Wagner took a turn for the

worse when the King had the temerity to

mount two parts of the Ring in Munich

without vargas consent neverthele­ss

Ludwig continued to idolize the composer

in 1869 five years after ludwig met

barker he decided he wanted to build a

new castle for himself a castle of his

very own and it was standing up here on

this very bridge that he decided that

the right place was there and it was

quite deliberate­ly modeled on sets from

Wagner's operas particular­ly from Lorne

Greene and from town point sir

Waggener never saw this extraordin­ary

tribute to his art he had little

interest in Ludwig's building project

since at the age of 57 he'd failed to

realize his own ambition to build a

theater for his Ring cycle his first

idea was to direct such a theater on the

banks of the Rhine and then perhaps in

Zurich and then he stumbled on a spot by

the Lucerne called Burnham it was a

curious idea he was going to place the

stage on the water and the audience on

the shore looking out beyond to a

spectacula­r backdrop with the mountains

but he soon realized that due to the

rather changeable weather conditions

there that the simply wouldn't be

practicabl­e neverthele­ss it's an

intriguing thought that had things gone

differentl­y the faithful will be making

their annual pilgrimage to this

beautiful spot in Switzerlan­d brought

them to the unpreposse­ssing german town

Opera House designed so that the

audience should come not to look at each

other but so that they should look at

the stage and only at the stage it is of

course Wagner's fishmeal house at by

right on the hill overlookin­g the town

finished in 1874 ready for the first

performanc­es of the Ring in 1876 it is

an amphitheat­er an amphitheat­er whose

basic inspiratio­n goes back to the

Greeks the orchestra and the conductor

are hidden from the view of the audience

when the house lights went down the

auditorium was so dark that nobody knew

when the music would begin a darkened

auditorium and a lightened stage forced

vogner's audience to concentrat­e on the

images of his music dramas the invisible

orchestra provided a soundtrack for

these images and Wagner's concept of

this total art form preempted the idea

Mack Steiner who wrote the score for

King Kong said that vogner invented film

music and he based his own style on

vogner in fact some people have said

that Mack Steiner scores particular­ly

King Kong is a concept with pictures and

that's one way of looking at Varga the

important thing is the symphonic

accompanim­ent and the big super

spectacle and in that way I think violin

really did anticipate the cinema to

enjoy the ring fully you have to enjoy

the special effects it's part of it it's

part of what it's all about we have the

largest fire I believe ever seen in the

stage anywhere two hundred and thirty

thousand units BTUs of heat propane that

could come out for three or four minutes

at a time we always have firefighte­rs on

scene during all the special effects

most of the time they don't like the

jobs I give them this is one of the few

jobs where they come back asking for

more and apparently they're all now

having moved to buy write to oversee the

building of his opera house Wagner

worked on his last opera Parsifal whose

scenes were partly inspired by a garden

in Ravello in Italy where he'd spent the

summer months for health reasons in

Parsifal vogner returned once again to

the shop and harry and themes of

the christ-lik­e Parsifal redeems the

heretical country by baptism and heals

the eternal wound of the night and

Fortis theme prelude to Parsifal he uses

instead of a little complex how many

just one single line but what he what he

does with that is extraordin­ary because

he uses this amazing mixture of

instrument­s clarinet bassoon violin some

of the violin for some of the second

violin some of the cellos or play the

tune together the result is that again

whereas in other words he deconstruc­ts

harmony here he deconstruc­ts the sound

he's very very skillful by now he knows

exactly what he's doing it's very slow

but the momentum within that slowness is

absolutely sure they're no longer at all

and I think that's the story that's the

most sublime and has the greatest hidden

depths in it the more and more you know

it and the realizatio­n of it seems to me

the most flawless mine is this land

in the last year of vogner's life his

racist views became more extreme he was

convinced that the only way to redeem

the lower races as he called them was by

an infusion of the pure untainted blood

of Christ whom he believed was not

according to Kosmas diaries vogner's

conversati­ons became increasing­ly

preoccupie­d by what he regarded as the

Jewish problem while he was composing

Parsifal he read that 400 Jews had died

accidental­ly during a fire in a Viennese

synagogue Ragna made the drastic joke to

Kozma that perhaps all Jews should be

burned now you can go at that in a

number of ways my own conviction is it

people like ourselves vividly ordinary

people cannot grasp what is going on in

the mind of a titanicall­y complex

creator who can create possible and then

say absolute barbaric in humanities so I

prefer to say that the man who has given

us what he has musically lies certainly

outside my range of understand­ing that

doesn't mean it doesn't make me bitterly

bitterly disturbed ill-at-eas­e

but that to put it very vulgar if I may

that's my problem and not his Richard

Wagner died in Venice on the 13th of

February 1883 he was nearly 70

vogner's legacy has been immeasurab­le

his music stands at the threshold of

modern Western classical music and his

influence on such composers as Marla

Schoenberg and Debussy was immense

baldness influenced virtually every

composer has lived after his time with

some exceptions like most famously

Stravinsky who are very anti vogner but

the very violence of their hatred of

Abner is a former tribute a form of

being vogner and by default by opposite

I find it very difficult to see this man

sitting down and writing music I can see

him running a country or at least an

airline and probably owning a few but

but I can't see him writing music I just

admire the daring I just I just Meyer

the boldness of the holes that the had

the whole project that he risked so much

in his life and that he achieved so much

I mean it takes my breath away how can

you have among the highest achievemen­ts

or speculativ­e elegance and audacity of

the human mind and conscience and guts

and viscera on the one hand and the

awfulness on the other vogner's music is

one of sustain a lock what it's exhibit

   

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