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EcoDesigner STAR Workflow: Project Specific Low Energy Building Solution Set 4 of 6 with English subtitles   Complain

hi and welcome to the Graphisoft eco

designer star energy-efficient building

design video series this movie is

entitled project specific low-energy

building solution set and it will show

you how to choose the most appropriate

low-energy building design strategy for

your design project the workflow starts

with creating a baseline building to be

used for testing the relevant low-energy

building solutions one by one this

method is called sensitivity analysis it

enables designers to investigate the

feasibility of different low-energy

building solutions finally the

low-energy building solution set that is

most appropriate for our design project

can be determined here you can see our

sample Building Information model BIM

created in Graphisoft ArchiCAD it's a

multi-story multi-purpose building built

next to an existing apartment block here

you can see the 3d ArchiCAD zones that

represent the internal spaces with the

help of these zones in the architectural

model elements the building energy model

or BEM for short is created

automatically since it originates from

the BIM the Eco designer BEM

automatically contains all the necessary

building geometry and material property

data for the building energy simulations

without any manual data input use the

energy model review palette to visualize

and also to edit the building energy

model the thermal blocks page lists all

the thermal blocks of the design let's

turn on the energy model view to display

the thermal block selected on the list

with colors in the 3d view the rest of

the building is shown in wireframe view

groups of ArchiCAD zones can be

specified as thermal blocks for example

this is the staircase thermal block and

it contains several ArchiCAD zones the

individual zones can also be displayed

in the 3d window by just simply

selecting them in the list

there is a retail area on the ground

floor above which there is an office

level various apartments can also be

found in the example building one of

these is a duplex

and there's another apartment in the

loft as well

finally there are some storage spaces in

the basement area

we can define thermal blocks by dragging

and dropping the 3d ArchiCAD zones into

a thermal block on the list

naturally new thermal blocks can also be

created here if we select the list

entries on the structure page of the

energy review palette then the

appearance of the building energy model

changes in the 3d view

the colors now represent the category

and orientation of the building energy

models opaque structures the structures

list is populated automatically based on

the ArchiCAD building information model

the integration of building energy

modeling with the architectural model

allows geometry and material property

data takeoff with unparalleled accuracy

eco designer star performs very detailed

hourly dynamic energy analysis based on

this architectural input data in order

to produce highly accurate energy

simulation results the example project

used for this demo represents a phase in

the architectural design process when no

low-energy building solutions have been

applied yet the shape and Zoning have

already been decided at this stage but

the final composites facade solutions

window placements shading etc can still

be easily changed naturally the building

systems have not been defined at this

point either in the energy-efficient

building design process presented in

this movie series we will use eco

designer star to optimize the

architectural design first and then to

evaluate the effect of different

building system strategies for example

natural versus mechanical ventilation in

order to find the best combination of

solutions specific to the project as you

can see a cross-section of the building

the project in this design phase has

very simple constructional solutions

reinforced concrete external walls with

minimal thermal insulation on the ground

floor lightweight block walls

a double ventilated composite roof

structure above the loft area and a

quite simple flat roof construction as

well let's have a quick look at one of

the mediocre composite structures

components here are all the skins of the

simple flat roof with their properties a

load-bearing concrete slab sloping

screed waterproofing membrane thermal

insulation and gravel on the top note

you can modify composites or create new

ones using the dedicated element

attribute dialog from the options menu

thanks to archicad's priority-based

connections all structural details are

automatically accurately and also

correctly connected the connections are

constructed in accordance with the

intersection priority settings of the

Skins materials the automatically

generated model details update in every

architectural BIM view as the model has

changed

here you can see the 3d energy model

view of one of the projects flat roofs

it's located above flat roof number

three here's the thermal block

representing flat number three it's

located partially under the pitched roof

and the loft and partially under the

flat roof let's find this flat roof on

the structures list of the energy model

review palette first change the display

order of the elements to list them by

thermal blocks select the flat roof on

the list from the structural elements

aside to flat number three note that it

also highlights in the 3d view the

structures list contains the name of the

composite used to model the flat roof

let's open the u-value calculator to

check the thermal characteristics of

this flat roof composite on this dialog

the skins of the composite flat roof

slab are listed the same way as on the

composite element attribute dialog but

on the u-value calculator panel the

thermal properties of the skins are also

displayed these composite skin

properties can be individually edited to

fine-tune the default physical

properties of the archicad building

material used to model the skin

or the best matching material item from

the material catalog can be assigned to

the skin

based on the skin characteristics the

external and internal heat transfer

coefficients the steady-state overall

heat transfer coefficient of the

composite structure is automatically

calculated use the switch to decide

whether to display this calculation

result as a u value or an r-value

thermal resistance which is the

reciprocal of the u value

let's open a section model view of the

project to have a closer look at one of

the construction details this detail is

located at the junction of the external

wall the floor slab and the balcony slab

let's open the corresponding ArchiCAD

detail where we've already added some

dimensions and other drawing elements to

the elements of the 3d building model

let's run a thermal bridge simulation on

this detail the easy to use dedicated

wizard guides us through the steps of

the thermal bridge simulations setup

process first we have to define the

exterior areas by assigning a dark blue

color to them in a similar way we also

have to define the internal areas by

assigning a red color to them this

detail has no connection with the ground

so there's no soil area to define the

next step is to make sure that each skin

and structural element of the detail has

the right building material assigned to

it on the left side of the next wizard

dialog the details building materials

are listed most of these materials come

directly from the model elements use the

list on the dialog to highlight the

detail components building material data

one by one and the corresponding

graphical representations will be

highlighted on the detail preview on the

right side of the dialog for this

example building the building materials

and thermal properties of the individual

skins have already been correctly

defined

besides fine-tuning the building

material assignments the list can also

be used to directly override the thermal

characteristics of the individual skins

let's proceed and check out the

simulation options the adaptive mesh

representing the calculation sampling

points can be visualized on the preview

by changing the reference grid size for

the calculation we can run more detailed

or less detailed thermal bridge

simulations let's start the simulation

results appear in seconds offering two

options for visualization the

temperature view and the energy flow

view hover the cursor over the coloured

temperature diagram on the left side to

read the calculated thermal

characteristics at every point while the

details overall thermal performance is

described by the linear heat transfer

coefficient psy value the results showed

that there's a significant thermal

bridge at this example balcony detail

even though a thermal break is inserted

between the balcony slab and the floor

slab on the other thermal bridge

simulation result view the energy flow

is represented by colors again we can

use the cursor to display the simulation

results at every point of the detail the

next step is to apply the results of the

thermal bridge simulation in the hourly

building energy simulation first measure

the length of the balcony slab to floor

slab joint on the floor plan to

determine the length along which the

thermal bridge occurs then use the

structures list of the energy model

review palette to add the thermal bridge

to the relevant thermal block and to

enter the thermal bridges length as a

result the thermal bridge will be

included in the energy balance

simulation and will influence the

building's overall energy performance

let's also review the characteristics of

the transparent surfaces in other words

the fenestration of the building

envelope select all entries on the

openings page of the energy model review

palette to highlight all the windows in

the 3d building energy model view

ArchiCAD and eco designer star can

perform model-based - solar irradiation

studies or solar analysis on these

transparent building elements when

looking at the building's geometry we

expect the selected window to be

partially shaded by the balcony above it

let's run the model based - solar

irradiation study to determine the

annual shadow mask on this example

window that has a southern orientation

there are two diagrams that display the

results of the solar analysis the

horizontal axes of both programs shows

the months of the year while the hours

of the days are displayed

along the vertical axis yellow on the

percentage of glazed area diagram

represents the times of the year when

the example window receives direct

sunshine blue represents the times of

the year when the window is shaded by

the balcony above it hover the cursor

over the diagram to identify the days

and times of the year and also read the

portion of the unshaded area on that

specific date and time it's clearly

visible that during the summertime when

the direct solar radiations angle of

incidence is high the window is shaded

by the balcony the direct solar

radiation on glazed surfaces diagram

also contains the effect of cloudy days

defined in the weather file based on

this input the annual integrated

director radiation value is calculated

by the program and displayed on the

bottom of the solar analysis dialog note

that this value is specific to the

example window and its position on the

designed buildings envelope as a second

example select another southern window

this time one that's not shaded by a

balcony and visualize the corresponding

solar radiation study results you can

see that this window is not shaded

during the hot summer months

consequently the annual integrated

direct solar radiation value assigned to

it automatically by the solar analysis

is much higher

let's investigate a west-facing window

as well

note that in this case the direct solar

radiation is only present during the

afternoons due to the Western

orientation the annual integrated direct

solar radiation value is automatically

calculated for this window as well edit

the windows thermal characteristics

using the openings page of the energy

model review palette glazing and frame

characteristics can be assigned to the

ArchiCAD BIM model elements using the

openings catalog we can also provide

individual values for each statement if

we wish

in the example building model we have

already assigned some basic glazing and

frames from the catalog to the windows

please note that the opening list also

contains the infiltration properties of

every window in the current state of the

design prior to building energy

optimization these are set to rather

high values there are no shading devices

assigned to the openings either

naturally all these settings will be

reflected in the results of the overall

energy balance calculations so far we

have defined the geometry of the

building created 3d zones and thermal

blocks based on the zones and defined

the thermal properties of the building

structures in the openings please note

we have not defined any actual building

systems yet the list of building systems

used for heating cooling and for

ventilation is displayed on the building

systems dialog every system assigned to

the project at this stage of the low

energy building design process is set to

not yet specified this is the setting to

be used in eco designer star for energy

demand calculation let's have a closer

look at operational energy consumption

metrics to fully understand the

different terms that describe energy

usage the energy balance simulation is

used to calculate the building's energy

demand indicated in green at the bottom

of the diagram energy demand represents

the amount of energy needed to heat up

or to cool down a building in order to

provide appropriate internal thermal

comfort throughout the year no

additional information is needed about

the building systems if we are

interested only in

buildings energy demand we only need to

specify whether the systems exist or not

however if we are also interested in the

fuel consumption of the building then

the building systems characteristics

must also be entered in this case for

example the simulation considers system

efficiencies in order to determine

building system related energy losses

not every system is able to satisfy a

certain demand machines are not equally

efficient under different loads either

and all these influence fuel consumption

therefore proper building systems data

input is inevitable at this stage of the

design process based on the fuel

consumption Eco designer star also

calculates the primary energy

consumption of the building the

calculation method here is quite similar

to that used by the program to obtain

the fuel cost or the carbon footprint

results the fuel consumption data is

multiplied with the relevant coefficient

in each case in this design phase

however we're only interested in

calculating the energy demand of the

building project the building energy

performance metric is strictly

proportional to the architectural design

therefore it's a great indicator

regarding the success of our low energy

building design efforts no building

system characteristics are input for

this round of the calculations yet

heating cooling and ventilation are all

defined as not yet specified building

systems later will configure these

systems for the fuel consumption

calculations

the operation profiles of the building

project are also required for the energy

calculations each thermal block must

have an operation profile assigned to it

it is possible to modify existing

operation profiles or create new ones

the daily profile editor dialog displays

the editable profile data for the

selected reference day here we can set

the required internal maximum and

minimum temperatures of thermal blocks

and specify the characteristics of

internal heat gains multiple reference

days can be created and scheduled to

cover the entire calculation year we're

now ready to run the first round of

simulations so let's click the start

energy simulation button the dynamic

energy analysis is executed by eco

designer star for the entire year on an

hourly basis this will take a couple of

minutes when the energy simulation is

completed the energy performance

evaluation report is displayed on the

screen the content of the report can be

customized by selecting the required

chapters from the list on the left in

this case we wish to include those

chapters in the report that are relevant

for the energy demand calculation the

project key values the project energy

balance the thermal block geometry

information the key values of each

individual thermal block and the energy

balance diagrams of the thermal blocks

here you can see the thermal block

energy balance is one by one please note

how different they are

designer star allows us to study and

fine-tune the energy performance of each

thermal block individually the built in

energy evaluation feature of ArchiCAD

for example only displays the project's

energy balance but does not provide the

energy balance diagrams of the

individual thermal blocks the

availability of thermal block energy

performance output is a major feature

difference between the standard energy

evaluation functionality of ArchiCAD and

eco designer star eco designer star

provides far more details about the

design projects energy characteristics

the HVAC design data chapter of the

report contains the most important

output data of the energy demand

calculation peak loads annual loads and

annual unmet load our information

include daily temperature profiles in

the energy performance evaluation PDF

document to display temperature values

for specific days of the year these days

can be the coldest hottest day and/or

the days when the peak loads occur we

can also specify days representing

typical spring summer autumn and winter

conditions daily temperature profiles

for any of the thermal blocks can be

selected for documentation let's also

select the energy consumption by targets

and energy consumption by sources

chapters these are not very relevant now

as no building systems have been defined

yet but these are good for validating

the demand calculation finally let's

click the save as PDF button to save the

energy performance evaluation report as

a PDF document let's open the previously

created energy performance evaluation

report this represents the project in

its so called baseline design state

before any low-energy building solution

has been applied the next step is to use

this baseline energy evaluation report

to determine the most appropriate

low-energy design strategy for our

project please remember we've specified

mediocre building structures and

openings for the baseline design

therefore the average heat transfer

coefficient for example is rather high

for the building shell let's have a look

at the project energy balance each loss

via transmission is significant

throughout the year we've specified a

rather high infiltration rate for the

openings earlier so it's not surprising

that the building shells overall

infiltration at 50 Pascal pressure is

three air changes per hour a pretty high

value the Passivhaus standard for

example requires this value to be below

0.5 still the effect of the infiltration

represented in light blue on the energy

balance diagram is not as significant as

the transmissions represented in light

brown at the lower part of the diagram

the upper part of the diagram uses the

color red to show the heating demand

throughout the cold months of the year

the heating demand is really high for

the baseline building

is not a surprise we've already run

climate analysis on this site that was

presented in the climate analysis video

clip of the series from that climate

analysis we know that winter is cold at

the example projects location

therefore the baseline building with its

poor envelope characteristics will

undoubtedly require a lot of heating in

the HVAC design data chapter of the

energy performance evaluation report we

can see a thermal block level breakdown

of all the yearly and hourly heating and

cooling demands these calculation

results can be used to determine the

characteristics of the building systems

we will use these results to dimension

the building systems of the baseline

building for the final performance

rating calculation we didn't specify any

shading devices for the baseline

building's openings so the cooling

demand during the hot season is quite

significant still it's not as dominant

as the heating demand due to the project

specific climate conditions on the

project energy balance we can see that

the solar gain represented in yellow at

the top diagram is compensated by the

cooling demand represented in dark green

on the lower diagram use the thermal

block energy balances to compare the

energy performance of the thermal blocks

for example there is definitely no solar

gain in the underground storage area but

there's a huge solar gain in the

staircase there is no cooling demand on

the staircase block because there is no

not yet specified system assigned to it

cooling demand however does appear for

all the rest of the conditioned spaces

to which not yet specified coolers were

assigned

let's use the relevant thermal block key

values chapter of the report to have a

look at the internal temperature values

in the staircase during the hottest

summer day the average internal

temperature is 26 degrees Celsius while

the maximum internal temperature is 37

degrees Celsius the hourly internal

temperatures that are higher than the

maximum allowable internal temperature

limit defined for the staircase in the

operation profile appear on the report

as unmet cooling hours

there is no cooling system in the

staircase of the baseline building and

it does not have any shading devices

either so the internal temperature is

often unbearably hot in the summer

months

there are several solutions the designer

can choose from to optimize the energy

demand of buildings in this example

we'll present the so called low-energy

building solution set concept this

concept is the result of research

carried out by the solar heating and

cooling chapter of the International

Energy Agency task 40 research group it

categorizes low-energy building

solutions in an easy-to-understand way

so that they can be applied effectively

and successfully during the design

process the low-energy building solution

set concept defines groups based on

low-energy building solution types there

are three solution types the first group

is called architectural solutions the

second group is the building system

solutions and the third group is called

Renewable Energy Solutions

the IEA shc task 40 research evaluated a

large number of low energy buildings in

different climates to determine the

relevance of each solution with respect

to the weather conditions this chart

shows the results of that study the

three columns represent three different

climates the first column represents the

cooling dominated climates the second

represents the so-called heating

dominated climates and the third

represents the so called mixed heating

and cooling climates the

row of the table represents a low-energy

building solution the solutions are

grouped according to the low-energy

building solution set concept the top

group contains the architectural

solutions such as solar shading

orientation building materials and

structures openings and natural

ventilation

the second group lists the building

system solutions such as mechanical

ventilation heating and cooling systems

the third group of solutions represents

the renewable energy solutions such as

photovoltaic panels sun collectors and

wind turbines our example building

project is located in a climate that

requires mixed heating and cooling

please watch the climate analysis video

clip to find out more about how to

determine the climate characteristics

for your design projects the gray bars

represent statistical results about the

relevance of the different low-energy

building solutions in the different

climates several Net Zero heating energy

buildings were considered throughout the

IEA shc task 40 research when this chart

was created let's have a closer look at

one of the low-energy building solutions

as presented on the chart the thermal

mass option is less relevant in pooling

dominated climates while in heating

dominated climates it's very important 9

out of 10 of the buildings investigated

use this low-energy strategy in cases of

mixed cooling and heating climates its

relevance is roughly in the middle of

the two previous cases the research data

validates the concept that groups Low

Energy Solutions into climate specific

solution sets

since the relevance of each low-energy

building solution greatly depends on the

weather conditions let's see the

relevance of the different low-energy

architectural solutions for the mixed

cooling and heating climate of our

example building only the architectural

solutions are displayed the building

system and Renewable Energy Solutions

are not because at this stage of the

design process we only evaluate the

efficiency of the architectural design

solutions therefore in order to

investigate

the effect of these architectural

solutions in an isolated manner no

building systems or renewable energy

strategies are added to the project at

this point this enables us to clearly

identify the relevance of every

low-energy architectural solution for

our design project when selecting an

architectural low-energy building

solution we should consider not only its

relevance on a given climate but also

other project specific aspects such as

site characteristics local availability

of constructional methods and materials

and the budget as well the most

important task of sustainable building

design is finding the optimal

combination of low-energy building

solutions for every project individually

such combinations of low-energy building

solutions are referenced as project

specific solution sets let's investigate

the effect of the highlighted for

solutions advanced opaque building

envelope good details advanced

defenestration and solar shading on our

example project we will execute the so

called sensitivity analysis on the

example building to measure the exact

impact these low-energy building

solutions have on the project's overall

energy performance the Eco designer star

sensitivity analysis workflow consists

of the following steps run an energy

simulation on the building in the early

design phase when only its shape zoning

and overall appearance has been decided

in this movie we've already completed

this step and documented the calculation

results or baseline result for the next

step apply the low-energy building

solutions that we wish to evaluate one

by one run the building energy

simulation then document these results

to finally compare these results with

the baseline result for each low-energy

building solution tested to study their

impact on the example buildings overall

energy performance the sensitivity

analysis enables architects to make

inform to design decisions knowing the

energy related consequences of the

architectural solutions let's test the

effect of solar irradiation to

illustrate the sensitivity analysis

workflow

use the openings page of the energy

model review palette to select all the

openings on the building shell and apply

an external blind shading device on all

of them

note that eco designer stars external

blind is an intelligent adjustable

shading device that's only activated

when the internal temperature of the

thermal block behind the window on which

the shading device is applied becomes

greater than 22 degrees Celsius

the building energy performance report

appears on the screen shortly after the

start energy simulation button is

pressed let's compare these results with

the baseline results the baseline

results are visible on the left side and

the energy evaluation report including

the effect of the shading devices is

visible on the right side of the screen

please note that the yellow bars

representing solar gain are considerably

lower during the hot seasons thanks to

the shading devices this means that less

energy is required to cool the interior

spaces in the summer please notice that

the dark green bars representing cooling

energy are much lower in the report on

the right side using the method

described above for the solar shading

the relevance of other low-energy

building solutions for example advanced

opaque building envelope good details

and advanced fenestration can be tested

as well the most important results of

the isolated solution tests are

displayed on this sensitivity analysis

summary spreadsheet and each is compared

with the corresponding baseline result

the yearly heating and cooling demands

as well as the hourly maximum demands

are listed on the summary spreadsheet

these values appear on the HVAC design

data table of the building energy

performance evaluation report as well

the sensitivity analysis summary

spreadsheet also displays the energy

savings and percentages for each of the

individual low-energy solutions compared

to the baseline results the energy

savings are also color-coded the amount

of the extra investment is indicated by

different shades of red

while savings are indicated by different

shades of blue please note that there

was practically no change in heating

costs due to the installation of the

shading devices however there is a huge

reduction in cooling demand and related

pooling costs thanks to the shading

devices both in the annual as well as in

the hourly values this enables us to

install lower capacity cooling systems

the advantage of the intelligent shading

devices of eco designer star is that

these provide shade when the internal

temperature of the thermal block behind

the

on which the shading devices applied

becomes greater than 22 degrees Celsius

furthermore these solar shading devices

do not shade the windows in the cold

season when solar heat gain helps to

reduce the heating demand let's have a

look at the summary spreadsheet again to

evaluate the potential benefits of the

other low-energy architectural solutions

considered for this example project

using an advanced envelope we can

achieve a huge reduction in the heating

demand during cold seasons this solution

does not help reduce the cooling demand

though in fact more often than not well

insulated buildings tend to overheat

I end constructional details also have

an impact on the overall energy balance

advanced fenestration however causes a

more significant change in the building

energy balance of this particular

example project the application of

top-of-the-line windows reduces the

annual heating demand by over 30 percent

and also reduces the annual cooling

demand by 18 percent the sensitivity

analysis executed for the specific

example project and climate shows that

we can efficiently apply the low-energy

architectural solution set containing

the following solutions advanced

building envelope upgraded

constructional details advanced

fenestration and openings and solar

shading please watch the movie clip

entitled low energy demand architectural

design for further details on how to

apply these solutions note besides the

sensitivity analysis presented in this

clip other factors such as budget site

conditions local resources and their

availability also influence the

application of Low Energy architectural

solutions all these characteristics

should be investigated and considered

when making design decisions about the

content of the project specific

low-energy building solution set let's

summarize the workflow presented in this

movie clip that helped us choose the

most appropriate project specific Low

Energy architectural design strategy

first we run the energy evaluation on

the exam

project in its so-called baseline design

state without any advanced architectural

solutions building systems or renewable

energy solutions as the next step we

studied the baseline calculation results

to understand the energy characteristics

of the example building simultaneously

we investigated climate specific options

for building energy optimization as

recommended by the IEA shc task 40

research recommendation sets developed

by other acknowledged resources could

also be considered after selecting some

of the recommended building energy

optimization options we carried out a so

called sensitivity study to identify the

exact effect of the individual solutions

finally we determined the project

specific Low Energy architectural

solution set based primarily on

sensitivity analysis results while also

considering other relevant factors

Graphisoft eco designer star provides

invaluable benefits by helping you

select the most appropriate climate and

project specific Low Energy

architectural solution set it helps you

control the energy demand of the project

it enables you to perform quick

sensitivity studies to evaluate

different architectural design solutions

and it allows you to scientifically

determine the best low-energy

architectural solution set for each of

your design projects eco designer star

for ArchiCAD does not require advanced

building energetics or engineering

skills it offers a steep learning curve

so any architect can use it right away

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