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Earth Without Moon - Full Documentary HD with English subtitles  

in the beginning there was darkness and

then bang giving birth to an endless

expanding existence of time space and

matter every day new discoveries are

unlocking the mysterious the

mind-blowing the deadly secrets of a

place we call the universe

what would happen if our moon suddenly

disappeared global tsunamis decimate

coastlines around the world as ocean

waters surge toward the gravitational

pull of the Sun

see currents shift changing weather

patterns and destroying food supplies

eventually Earth's axis tilts wildly

turning the poles into tropical jungles

and the equator into frigid wastelands

new species emerge while others go

extinct our planet becomes

unrecognizable the day the moon was gone

the moon is a barren lifeless rock but

it plays a surprisingly important role

in the story of life on Earth

how important

let's remove it from the sky and find


strange things start to happen almost

immediately people on the coast are the

first to notice the change

this would probably create something

like a tsunami a tidal wave which would

be very dramatic indeed


it's well known that the moon controls

Earth's tides as it orbits around us its

mass tugs our oceans toward it causing a

tidal bulge on the side of the planet

nearest the moon and through a strange

quirk of gravitational physics it forms

a second bulge on the side farthest away

from the moon few people realize the Sun

also plays a role in governing the tides


but because it's 400 times farther from

us than the moon its gravitational

influence on the oceans is relatively

small about 1/3 of the total effect

but with the moon out of the picture the

Sun is now in control with the moon up

here that's gravitational pull is sort

of pulling a dome of water up there's

big sort of bulb then imagine you just

snip the cord and the water had to flow

back out

the water rushes toward the gravity of

the Sun in a massive global tsunami the

force of the waves depends on where the

moon is in relation to the Sun when it

disappears if the moon vanished at full

moon or at new moon that's when the moon

is lined up with the earth and the Sun

the lunar tidal bulges would shrink the

solar tidal bulges in the same spots and

the extra water from the lunar bulges

would quickly flow to other parts of the

globe but there's an even more dramatic

possibility if the moon vanished when

it's a quarter moon either first quarter

or last quarter then the moon's tidal

bulge is not in the same place as the

Sun tidal bulge and so I expect you

would see a very quick motion of Earth's

oceans from the lunar tidal bulge to the

solar tidal budge some experts believe

this more drastic lateral shift in ocean

water would blast coastal spots around

the world

the powerful pulses would be similar to

the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami except

the waves would cause even more death

and destruction since they'd be


to massive east-to-west and west2east

waves would be initiated on opposite

ends of the earth a seaside city like

Miami would be pummeled by a 50-foot

wall of water that would destroy most

coastal buildings and sweep across the

entire width of southern Florida putting

9 million lives at risk

but with such a titanic shift of water

could there be other unpredictable

results one can imagine that perhaps the

east-west or north-south motion of that

water could disrupt the currents the

Gulf Stream carries warm water from the

Caribbean up to Great Britain and it

helps keep Great Britain a lot warmer

than it otherwise would be considering

how far north is climate is a very

delicate system and you tweak one part

of it and another part responds and then

one can imagine that food productivity

and the overall way of life would be

dramatically altered if it were cooler

in northern Europe the Sahara Desert is

a great example someplace that used to

be green and lush and now is completely

a desert having changes with climate can

really have impact on our survival but

the biggest impact on our planet would

be the changes to Earth's steady tilt a

unique feature

that gives us our four regular seasons

the thing that locks our planet's tilt

to about 23.5 degrees so consistently is

the presence of the moon that acts as a

large stabilizer if we don't have the

moon anymore we may get into a regime

that's much more like Mars and Mars

instead of being at a stable 23 and 1/2

degrees goes through wild variations of

the tilt

varying from maybe as low as 15 degrees

and low-side all the way up to something

like about 75 80 degrees on the high


without the moon our axis begins

fluctuating erratically over several

hundred thousand years the gravitational

pull from other planets in the solar

system starts wreaking havoc on earth

our stable seasons shift dramatically as

different parts of our planet tilt

radically toward the Sun during some

periods and away at others as soon as

you get rid of the moon you're stuck

with this radical tilting of the axis

back and forth and therefore radical

climate changes that don't happen today

earth becomes a very strange world as

mankind struggles to adapt and survive

if we go to a situation where we don't

have that stabilization those very small

changes become very very big we may go

to a situation where the ice becomes

stable over the tropics imagine jungles

and forests and Antarctica and ice

sheets and glaciers in Central Africa

the tilt would vary on timescales of a

few hundred thousand years

these are timescales of ice ages coming

on the earth you know how much of an

impact that happened humanity had a hard

time adjusting to those changes as we

came out of the last ice age it's very

difficult to predict exactly what would

happen to humans because we're not sure

how rapidly were able to adapt to

radically change in environments and if

our moon disappeared permanently life in

the sea and on the shore would be

drastically transformed

sharks would lose their hunting prowess

unable to track the schools of fish

swarming above them in the moonlight

crabs used to mating at extreme low

tides become disoriented in the loss of

lunar phases grunion that lay their eggs

during a high tide in full moon suffer

reproductive disruption even primitive

aquatic plant life would be affected

many species will spend their evenings

on the on the surface interacting with

moonlight the moon comes out the algae

are moving up and they're followed by

all of the organisms that eat the algae

and the organisms that eat them so the

whole ecology of the ocean is tuned to

light all of these organisms will be

completely disrupted none of their

ecology will work because they won't

have the usual sensing signals

billions of people would suffer from

food shortages and coastal economies

would be devastated by the worldwide

crash in marine life populations

I would liken it to one of us suddenly

waking up one morning and discovering we

were blind or deaf that would be a

chaotic thing on earth without the moon

is a rudderless planet highlighting just

how critical this big rock is to

sustaining life here

there are over 150 moons in our solar

system but Earth's moon is truly unique

our Moon is unlike any of the other

moons in the solar system it is huge

compared to earth it's about a quarter

of the size of Earth and you don't see

that in any of the other planets because

the moon is so big relative to the earth

it's as if we're really in a double

planet system there's a crude way to

think about the effect of the moon

stabilizing this axial tilt of the earth

if you've noticed tightrope walkers will

carry this long pole and that gives them

more stability because there's mass out

there on the end of the pole and it's

harder to fall off the line so it's that

same kind of thing that the mass at a

distance can affect the stability of the

system but the moon has not always been

by our side

there was a time early in Earth's

history when there was no moon a period

when our planet was a strange place with

eight-hour days in a molten landscape

too harsh for life and then suffered the

most violent collision in its history


it's hard to imagine that there was a

time when our earth did not have a moon

our planet was formed four and a half

billion years ago by accumulating and

fusing large amounts of debris in the

early stages of our volatile solar


during that early period our moonless

earth was a monstrous stew of flowing

lava molten rock and liquid iron its

atmosphere was filled with carbon

dioxide belched from the bowels of the

earth thick heavy and uninhabitable for


there was almost nothing on the planet

this was a nasty place to be lots of

things were condensing it was extremely

hostile place even to rock chemistry so

the rocks were melted everything was a


our original earth without its moon was

an unrecognizable world

the early Earth was a really hot place

in fact that era of the earth is called

the Hadean like Hades because well

because it was really hot there was a

tremendous amount of volcanism and a lot

of impacts coming in there was probably

a lot of lightning and outgassing both

from the volcanoes and from Steam

the stability of our early solar system

was not much better it was created out

of a huge disc of gas debris and dust

that swirled around the newly formed Sun

our early solar system was kind of like

a roller derby

survey was generally going in the same

direction but there was a lot of chaos

there was a lot of clumping and

accreting and things getting flung to

the inside and crossing lanes to the

outside people all spilling over each

other mashing up in the corner is a real

mess without the moon we can only guess

at the Earth's early tilt and rotation

rate that would have been determined by

the multiple glancing collisions from

the innumerable asteroids and proto

planets that ricocheted throughout our

early solar system

if you kind of average over the solar

system you look at all the planets and

the big asteroids and make a bell curve

of rotation speeds it looks like the

typical rotation speed might be a tower

or something like that so we could make

a guess that that might have been the

likely rotation speed before the moon

was formed then about 10 million years

after our moonless earth began taking

shape there was a massive collision

now widely accepted by astronomers the

giant impact theory says that a

mars-sized planet collided at an oblique

angle at 25,000 miles per hour with

earth the impactor blasted more than 70%

of the Earth's molten crust into space

a giant whirling arm made up of 5

billion cubic miles of blazing rock and

light metals was launched into orbit

around our planet

the gravity of the larger chunks began

pulling smaller particles towards them

within one year it coalesced into our

moon the only materials that were blown

out from the earth where the crustal

rocky material and that's what the

moon's made out of and in fact if you go

to any other place in the solar system

for example Mars or look at meteorites

that come from the asteroid belt there

are certain ratios of the different

types of oxygen that ratio in other

parts of the solar system is very

different than what we see in the earth

now we fly to the moon we get the moon

rocks we bring them back they have

exactly the same oxygen isotope ratio as

yours so that material came out of the

earth and that fits this idea of an


the energy released in the giant

collision equaled a force of six

trillion atomic bombs that's a thousand

atom bombs for every person in for its

current population of six billion people

the impactor planet that hit earth was

thought to have formed in an area of our

solar system called the Lagrangian

points these are regions 60 degrees

either ahead of or behind the earth but

at a similar distance from the Sun

debris can stay fixed in the Lagrangian

points for tens of millions of years

locked between the gravitational

influence of the Sun and earth but

eventually something knocked the

impactor off its fixed course that

something was Jupiter

every time Jupiter passed by us in his

harbin it would be giving a little tug

to this impactor planet and each little

tug wouldn't be very big but if you

think about for example having a car

that's stuck in a ditch or stuck in a

snowbank how do you get that car out of

the snowbank

well the way you do it is you rock the

car you push it a little bit it comes

back push a little bit more it comes

back little farther and this way with a

bunch of little pushes you eventually

free it and that's exactly what Jupiter

did to this impactor planet and once it

gets away from the Lagrange point it's

no longer stable and it's doomed it's

eventually going to collide with earth

after the giant Cataclysm the inner part

of the whirling arm of ejected debris

forms a clump that consists of materials

from the impactors iron core that

heavier clump wreak elides with earth

and is absorbed into our planet Center

the giant impact was really the biggest

thing that ever happened to her what we

have now is a core and a hat that makes

our planet denser and our gravity

stronger than it would be otherwise

the larger molten core takes longer to

cool than the Earth's original core

would have heat is constantly pushed up

and through thin crust of the earth

creating fissures

it's possible that this larger core

helped create the sustain plate tectonic

system that formed our continents a

unique planetary feature in our solar

system as an example Mars was much

smaller it cooled much quicker and so it

has no crustal plates


most critically the collision knocks the

earth onto its current axial tilt of 23

and 1/2 degrees and speeds up its

rotation from eight hours to just five


within a year the moon forms roughly

fourteen thousand miles away from Earth

significantly closer than its current

distance of two hundred thirty four

thousand miles you've got this immense

moon in the sky

fifteen times as big as the present moon

so think about this thing rising and

rising and rising until it fills a

pretty big chunk of that evening sky and

imagine it being red because it's full

of this molten lava around the surface

and imagine that looming over your head

it's mind-boggling the early moon's

gravitational pull on earth is roughly

200 times stronger than today because of

its much closer distance though no

oceans exist yet the lunar tidal forces

are 3400 times more powerful they lift

and draw large crusts of molten rock -

more than half a mile high twice a day

our early planets axial tilt stabilizes

due to the moon's formation at its mass

acts as an anchor but the Earth's spin

begins slowing because the moon's

gravitation creates a tidal bulge around

our planets midsection causing a drag on

the Earth's rotation let the earth be

this green balloon and here's the moon

if the earth weren't rotating the tidal

bulge would point directly toward the

moon but the earth is rotating pretty


so in fact the tidal bulge tends to be a

little bit ahead of the direction toward

the moon that means the moon's gravity

is pulling back on the Earth's bulge a

little bit retarding its rotation ever

so slightly but the tidal bulge on Earth

also has a reactive force on the moon

this tidal bulge pulls the moon ahead in

its orbits constantly trying to tug the

moon faster but the moon doesn't want to

go faster in its orbit if instead what

happens if you imagine drawing throwing

a slingshot and swinging past it it

wants to go out

and that's what the moon does it goes

outward because it's being tugged faster

in this orbit so gradually over the

years the moon is moving farther and

farther up the complex gravitational

dance between the two partners is now

pushing the moon away from Earth at a

rate of one and a half inches per year

over billions of years the moon's

recession has slowed the Earth's

rotation from five hour days to our

24-hour day today the whole idea of this

rotation of the earth being influenced

by the moon is a little bit like what

you see when a figure skater is spinning

and if you pull their arms in close and

spin she spins faster and he throws

their arms out to slow down and this is

all what the physicist would call

angular momentum but it's the same idea

as the moon moved out it's kind of like

throwing those arms out and that slows

down the rotation in the whole system

but what if the giant impact had never

happened the changes to earth would be

even more drastic than if the moon now

suddenly disappear today would we

recognize an earth that never had a moon

and would humans even exist


if the moon disappeared instantly earth

would undergo changes like possible

tsunamis a shift in ocean currents sea

life extinctions and eventual massive

climate swings but if the moon had never

existed earth would be unrecognizable to

anyone today without the moon life on

Earth would probably look quite

different in particular humans might

well never have come into existence

about a hundred fifty million years

after a moonless earth forms four and a

half billion years ago it moves out of

its hot molten phase and begins cooling

the day is only about eight hours long

if we had an eight-hour rotation period

we'd have four hours of daylight four

hours a night the nights would be

totally black if we don't have a moon

once cooled our planet is tempered

enough to retain water heat escaping

from Earth's core drive steam and carbon

dioxide beyond the surface creating a

thick atmosphere

over a period of time many many many

many years all that atmosphere would

have kind of collapsed back out and then

as it cooled the oceans would have

formed in torrential rain stalls icy

asteroids continually pummel the planet

bringing in another large source of

water with a smaller cooler molten core

there are probably no plate tectonics

and therefore no large mountains and

huge ocean basins water soon covers most

of the planets more uniform crust we

certainly would have a higher sea level

than we have today

less continental area and that would be

a different world our blue marble would

be even bluer ironically even with all

that water the early moonless earth

would have smaller tides

determined only by the gravitation of

the Sun they would be just one-third the

size of our current tides the range

between high and low tide would remain

constant throughout the year and would

occur at exactly the same time each day

that means the intertidal regions would

have been narrower probably leading to

less diversification of life and perhaps

even impeding the progress of life from

the oceans to the lab because it's in

the intertidal regions where creatures

had to develop the ability to survive

both in the water and on land with an

eight-hour day just four hours of light

followed by four hours of moonless black

the early Earth spins three times faster

than today the winds howl due to the

aerodynamics of Earth's quicker rotation

Jupiter for example is a giant planet

that spins very rapidly it has a 10-hour

spin period and it's got ferocious winds

in its upper atmosphere hundreds of

miles an hour and incredible storms like

the Great Red Spot which has been around

for centuries now Earth probably would

be spinning more rapidly than it is now

and that would generally lead to

stronger winds and more violent

hurricanes and other storms early

Earth's fast spin results in another

important side effect

the rotation of Earth's core

particularly the the molten part of the

core is believed to be what generates

our magnetic field and so the Earth

rotates three times faster the magnetic

field is three times stronger

the enhanced magnetic field over the

moonless earth more effectively deflects

high-energy Solar Flare particles

towards the Earth's poles resulting in

larger more spectacular Aurora's but by

blocking the solar flares not as much

radiation zaps life in the lower

atmosphere decreasing mutations that

drive evolution stronger magnetic field

might have slowed the rate at which life

evolved on earth

without the moon the developing earth

suffers intense climate volatility over

many periods each lasting several

million years the Earth's axis is pulled

and pushed by the Sun and other planets

without the stabilizing influence of the


conditions would have paralleled what

happened to Mars

what we've learned in the last 15 or 20

years is that Mars has a very unstable

axis because it has no big moon then

when we look at Mars and we can actually

see on the surface of Mars geological

features that formed under very

different climate regimes when the polar

axis was tilted over on Mars we actually

see these features like the dry river

channels and glacial deposits and other

features ice close to the equator and so

the big realization was oh yeah the

climate has been changing on Mars and

this explains that we're seeing older

features like the Red Planet a moonless

Earth's axis would tilt wildly turning

our planet topsy turvy

our axis over a period of millions of

years would wobble chaotically it would

sometimes be vertical it sometimes be

close to horizontal when it's vertical

then the whole earth might be kind of a

tropical paradise when it's horizontal

you could actually have the poles

pointing towards the Sun in the poles

actually getting jungles so you would

see very big changes in Earth's climate

as a result of this chaotic wandering of

first axis and this would make it more

difficult for life to flourish because

it would constantly have to adapt to

different conditions to ice ages and to

extremely hot agent


so what would life on earth look like

today if we had never had a movement

short days high winds and other changes

could produce a freakish world with

creatures that look like they're

straight out of science fiction

the moon was for billions of years ago

when a planet-sized asteroid and crashed

into Earth but what if that violent

collision never happened if the moon

never came along to stabilize our planet

earth would be an alien place

the spin of early Earth was very fast

with about four hours of daylight

followed by four hours of darkness over

billions of years the sun's gravity and

tidal friction with lengthen that 8-hour

day to 12 hours

but this is still twice as fast as the

current Earth spins which makes for some

extreme weather including devastating

storms and high winds

if the moon had informed you certainly

get a wildly different environment on

the earth with a faster turning Earth's

you get more jet streams you get more

turbulence probably making bigger storms

more lightning because of the friction

of the different masses of air moving in

some places the winds could reach one or

two hundred miles an hour there would

also be stronger hurricanes and earth

would have larger waves battering the

coastlines and without the moon

stabilizing affect the rapidly spinning

earth tilts back and forth

over hundreds of thousands of years our

planet suffers the ravages of

ever-shifting climate because of the

erratic changes in axial tilt as

different regions are blasted by heat

then covered by ice again and again

and without the moon there is another

layer of axial and stability even though

today's earth is stabilized by the moon

there is still a wobble to the Earth's

rotation known as precession

earth's tilt is 23 and 1/2 degrees but

over a period of 26,000 years it goes

through conical variations like this and

if the moon had never formed this

wobbling would be much more

unpredictable if we didn't have the moon

the earth would precess much more slowly

and this is one cause for chaotic

variations in the axial tilt a slower

precession of the earth would lead to a

much more unstable axis of rotation for

the earth without the moon Earth's axis

today would be like the slower spinning

top precessing gyrating and wobbling in

ever-larger conical circles right now

26,000 years very stable zone you get

going slower so it's maybe 40,000 maybe

50,000 80 60,000 then you hit the

chaotic range and then everything goes

wrong with the more forbidding and

shifting climate evolution on a moonless

earth varies between bursts of

adaptation and violent extinction

bizarre life forms mushroom plant

species are vulnerable as they don't

have the mobility to stay ahead of

speedy climate change

and complex life-forms like humans

probably wouldn't stand a chance at all

the variations in climate would be

extreme and rather rapid and it would

probably make it difficult for complex

creatures to evolve because most complex

features can't evolve very quickly to

changes in their environment instead

primitive organisms would predominate

and endure bacterial life is able nolle

to adapt more quickly but also to

withstand more extreme environments we

see bacteria under the deep ice cores of

the Antarctic or Greenland and we see

bacteria that live in steaming boiling

pots in the Yellowstone


if complex life were to evolve it would

look very different due to short days

high winds and other features of a

moonless earth it would be much more

hostile than it is now

you would see that all of these winds

and all of the noise and all of the

clouds moving from water to life on land

would be very tough we might see shorter

life spans because things are going on

faster during the day there are a

limited time to metabolize and gain

energy and do things organisms would

have to be a little more clever

evolution would favor short stout

creatures and plant life that could

withstand ferocious hurricanes jungles

wouldn't exist since they need wind

barriers to flourish and there probably

wouldn't be any creatures swinging from

branch to branch

due to stubbier plant life and high

winds I would expect that creatures

generally wouldn't be as tall because

they'd have a harder time holding

themselves up and trees with shallow

root systems wouldn't become very tall

palm trees for example probably wouldn't

survive too well

the constant gusts would push other


sailing you know maybe membranes that

lets you take off and leap through the

air and the perpetual Gale like

conditions would create an exceptionally

loud planet if animals made noises to

communicate they'd have to be very

different from the constant shrieking

wind sounds the use of sound at

wavelengths that are not the sound of

the background noise if you have a

receptor that just zeros out that noise

we might be able to speak like this and

be heard perfectly we might all be

Sopranos and have ears tuned to a

different pitch

or more visual cues might be developed

to cut through the audio overload

creatures might develop extra limbs to

not only shield themselves from the wind

but also use their appendages to

communicate like sailors using semaphore


perhaps speech would not develop so

maybe other forms of communication

whether color changes expression changes

hand languages who knows even today many

of Earth's beings such as fireflies

squids krill and jellyfish communicate

by changing their body colors because of

the dark nights creatures might also

develop enhanced vision and sensory

systems similar to the night vision

goggles and infrared displays used by

the military the interesting possibility

is that life might be able to to develop

sensors that were so good that they

could actually sense starlight and this

would be something colossal

it looks and sounds like a rough and too

tough world unfit for human habitation

luckily when the moon formed it created

the conditions for people to develop and

prosper but our moon is also moving

farther away from Earth every year does

that mean there will be another time in

Earth's future without the moon

four and a half billion years ago the

young earth was a hellish molten place

unfit for life

so then how did a violent collision by

an object the size of Mars

soon after the Earth's formation create

the conditions for the complex life were

part of today the body blow to earth

knocked our planet to its current tilt

and the formation of the moon

kept it there

the mass of the moon out there what it's

done is it's prevented the tugs of the

other planets from causing the the

earth's tilt to change too much

so it's provided a real stabilizing

effect on our climate because advancing

the collision also created a chain

reaction of forces that set the stage

for life

when the iron cores of the two planets

combined it created a larger core for

the new earth

the collision also knocked off much of

the Earth's crust

this combination with large amounts of

heat pushing up from a giant core

through a thin crust likely created the

conditions for sustained plate tectonics

the movement of these plates formed

mountain ranges and deep basins and the

resulting volcanic activity spewed out

the gases that created our atmosphere

water eventually settled in the basis

creating oceans leaving continents of

land above but life still had a tough

time getting started in the early days

of Earth for the first half billion

years of the Earth's and the moon's

existence they were bombarded by debris

that was still finishing up the

formation of the solar system so even if

primitive life microbes and bacteria had

formed in the first few hundred million

years they might easily have been wiped

out by these giant things crashing into

her now we have evidence for life dating

back to 3.8 billion years ago

that's shortly after the end of the era

of heavy bombardment

by then due to tidal friction between

the Earth and Moon the moon had moved

slightly farther away from Earth an

Earth's rotation had slowed to roughly a

10-hour day but since the moon was still

much closer than today the tides in

Earth's early oceans were humongous the

tides went way inland and poured back

out to sea twice a day you get big Gulf

of water in and when it drained back out

it carried a lot of minerals and soils

and other parts of the Earth's crust

back out to sea with it so there was

this constant erosion and scrubbing of

the land certainly a unique environment

that might have been just right for life

to develop the area between high and low

tide known as the intertidal region was

enormous high tides would rush hundreds

of miles inland then back out a few

hours later

during the low tides molecular strands

began forming in some of the endless

miles of tide pools what happens when

water evaporates the h2o molecules go

away and everything else is left so the

organic sludge in the pool gets more and

more concentrated as the water

evaporates so this was the idea that

life formed in these little pools around

570 million years ago almost 3.9 billion

years after the giant impact Earth's

ocean life begins moving on to land

giving birth to complex species the

bigger the intertidal regions the

greater the resulting diversity of life

because you can have species that live

in these environments that are sometimes

exposed to the Sun and sometimes


over billions of years our earth seems

to have reached a perfect equilibrium

that is allowed for the evolution of a

diverse intricate and fragile ecosystem

there are some climates that are too

uniform no seasonal changes and so on

and don't need to life because there's

no environmental stress and on the other

hand climates that are too variable

where the seasons are changing all the

time you're getting hit by an asteroid

every million years planets like that

would probably try to pour in life but

they couldn't get it going because

things would change too fast so maybe

there's a situation it's just right in

the middle and maybe the earth-moon

system is somewhere in

which is fostered not only formation of

primitive life but the evolution of that

life into folks like us but though our

moon stabilizes things it continues to

recede from us at a rate of an inch and

a half per year while it slows our spin

scientists estimate that we're adding

two seconds to our day every 100,000

years a billion years from now our days

might last 26 hours rather than 24 hours

which is great if you're a

procrastinator like me you could always

use more time so what will happen to the

unique Earth Moon partnership that may

life on Earth possible will the moon

eventually just drift away out of

Earth's gravitational influence the rate

will be so slow that it won't be a very

big effect and long periods of time will


without much change so long that we will

have had time for our son to run out of

fuel and become a red giant at that time

the earth will be destroyed and so will

the moon at the same time we'll all get

baked together

so maybe it's comforting to know but

five billion years from now on the day

the earth faces its end we won't be


our anchor in the sky will be there the

glowing orb it made advanced life on

Earth possible

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